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AN ASSESSMENT OF AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP STYLES AS A PREDICTOR OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER INTENTIONS IN PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS (A CASE STUDY OF NEXTTEL, CAMEROON)

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AN ASSESSMENT OF AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP STYLES AS A PREDICTOR OF EMPLOYEE TURNOVER INTENTIONS IN PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS (A CASE STUDY OF NEXTTEL, CAMEROON)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

 Leadership is a crucial factor in the management and control of employees and the organization and, can be viewed as a series of managerial attitudes, behaviors, characteristics, and skills, based on individual and organizational values, leadership interests and, the reliability of employees in different situations (Alkhatani, 2018). Leadership is executed in different styles depending on the leader‟s personality and the situation at hand. Moreover, failure to take employees into account while making choices can impede the organization's ability to achieve its desired objectives. In order to create improved working environments, the top management of organizations should take into account the internal dynamics, employees' expectations, attitudes, and behaviours. According to Cheng et al. (2018), authoritarian leadership style is characterized by the maintenance of complete authority and control over subordinates, with an expectation of unquestioning loyalty. Authoritarian leaders seek to exert control over employees by the establishment of regulations, the use of threats to penalize noncompliance, and the promise of rewards (Aryee et al., 2018). This leadership style elicits alterations in employees' attitudes and behaviours towards the organization. Additionally, employees exhibit favourable business attitudes and have high performance levels when they receive support or authorization from their superiors. In contrast, employees are more likely to behave negatively when they feel threatened or intimidated by authoritarian leaders (Kiazad et al., 2020). However, research indicates that authoritarian leaders have a preference for exerting control over interpersonal interactions in order to achieve effective outcomes (Bedell et al., 2019). Leadership has a crucial role in shaping an organization's strategies, ensuring their effective execution, and inspiring employee to go above and beyond in accomplishing organizational objectives. On the other hand, an authoritarian  leadership style influences employee loyalty, determining whether they will remain in their position or choose to leave, or even engage in Counterproductive Work Behaviours (CWBs). The consequences of bad leadership style, such as employee turnover intentions and counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs), have a detrimental impact on the ability of leadership to motivate and retain personnel, ultimately leading to dismal organizational performance (Bruursema, 2021). Employee turnover, in hindsight, pertains to the movement of workers throughout the labour market, transitioning between different organizations, jobs, and occupations, as well as between periods of being employed and unemployed (Abassi and Hollman, 2020). High personnel turnover results in organizations incurring substantial direct and indirect expenses. These expenditures mostly pertain to the activities of recruiting, choosing, placing, inducting, training, developing replacement staff, and mitigating the consequences of brand damage. High rates of employee attrition have been linked to reduced levels of customer satisfaction, productivity, future revenue growth, and profitability. The turnover of staff had negative impacts on the quality of work, administrative costs, and staff morale. This was due to an increased workload and animosity among the remaining employees who had to take on more obligations. As a result, there was disaffection among both customers and organizational members. (Simons, 2019). Numerous firms are apprehensive about the expenses associated with staff turnover that arises from leadership failures and its impact on the company's financial performance, especially in terms of job loss among the older and more seasoned workforce. Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to assess authoritarian leadership styles as a predictor of employee turnover intentions in private organizations (a case study of NEXTTEL, Cameroon)

1.2 Statement of the Problem

High employee turnover rates pose numerous drawbacks for both organizations and national economies. However, managing employee turnover and reducing turnover rates is a significant challenge for decision makers and managers. Furthermore, researchers have focused their emphasis on authoritarian leadership, and academics have thoroughly investigated this particular leadership style (Kiazad et al., 2020). According to Bass & Bass (2019), authoritarian leadership involves assuming responsibility for making choices and exerting control over the performance of subordinates. While some academics characterize authoritarian leadership as a comprehensive means of exerting control over subordinates (Cheng et al. 2018; Farh et al. 2022), other researchers concentrate on the impact of authoritarian leadership on the decision-making process. Although, authoritarian leaders can be effective by setting certain and specific targets for their subordinates (Locke and Latham 2022). Similarlly, authoritarian leaders often develop employees' identities as group members, and this situation may further motivate employees to perform at a high level (Schaubroeck et al. 2017).  Rast et al. (2023) argue that authoritarian leaders are more likely to have clear, certain and direct communication with their subordinates. It is believed that authoritarian leaders are generally influential in the high performance of their subordinates (Aycan 2020). On the other hand, authoritarian leaders are likely to create a climate of fear and anxiety (Pellegrini and Scandura 2018). Therefore, they block the creativity of the employees. According to Cheng et al. (2018), authoritarian leaders want their employees to work in accordance with the instructions and punish if they disobey. It is suggested that negative results may occur, including fear of leadership, work pressure and intention to leave (Wang et al. 2018). Previous studies show that authoritarian leadership is linked to job dissatisfaction of employees (Shaw, 2018). Furthermore, when employees are not satisfied with their work, they show absenteeism and poor performance (Mount et al. 2018). The results of the studies on whether authoritarian leadership supports or damage employee performance show that deeper studies is needed to examine the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employee turnover intention. It is in the light of these that the study seeks to assess authoritarian leadership styles as a predictor of employee turnover intentions in private organizations.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess authoritarian leadership styles as a predictor of employee turnover intentions in private organizations. Specifically, the study will;

Examine the prevalence of authoritarian leadership styles in private organizations.

Assess the levels of employee turnover intentions in private organizations

Assess the impact of authoritarian leadership styles on employee turnover intention in private organization.

Assess the relationship between authoritarian leadership styles and employee turnover intentions in private organizations.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What is the prevalence of authoritarian leadership styles in private organizations?

What are the levels of employee turnover intentions in private organizations?

How does authoritarian leadership style impact employee turnover intention in private organizations?

Is there a relationship between authoritarian leadership styles and employee turnover intentions in private organizations?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: There is no significant relationship between authoritarian leadership styles and employee turnover intentions in private organizations.

Ha: Authoritarian leadership styles significantly predict employee turnover intentions in private organizations.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The results of the study will enable organizational management to make well-informed decisions regarding leadership development, succession planning, and organizational culture initiatives that aim to promote more effective and supportive leadership strategies in the organization. Moreover, it will enable managers have the ability to cultivate a culture characterized by trust, collaboration, and engagement among their teams, which eventually leads to a decrease in employees' desire to leave and an improvement in team performance. Additionally, employees will be able to advocate for more supportive leadership practices, seek opportunities for professional development and growth, and make informed decisions about their career paths in the organization. Furthermore, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to authoritarian leadership styles as a predictor of employee turnover intentions in private organization.

1.6 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on authoritarian leadership styles as a predictor of employee turnover intentions in private organizations. Empirically, this study will examine the prevalence of authoritarian leadership styles, assess the levels of employee turnover intentions,  the impact of authoritarian leadership styles on employee turnover intention and assess the relationship between authoritarian leadership styles and employee turnover intentions in private organizations.

Geographically, the study will be delimited to employees in NEXTTEL, Cameroon.

1.7 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. 

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Authoritarian leadership styles: refer to leadership approaches characterized by high levels of control, directive behavior, and centralized decision-making authority by leaders or managers within private organizations. 

Turnover intention: employees' self-reported attitudes, thoughts, or plans regarding their likelihood or desire to leave their current employment in an organization.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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  • Reference(s):

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  • Methodology: Yes available


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