The main focus of this study is to examine teachers perception of challenges of effective teaching and learning of home economic in secondary schools using Edo State as case study.Survey design was employed for the study with the aid of convenience sampling method, eighty (80) participant who are secondary school teachers were selected as the participant of the study. Well structure questionnaire was issued to the enrolled participants of which 77 of the instrument were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed in simple percentage, mean ad standard deviation presented in frequencies and tables. Findings from the study revealed that home economics offers numerous occupational opportunities for selfreliance Hence its learning experiences enable students to develop competencies, making connection between their daily lives and their future world. However actors such as inadequate teachers, inappropriate and ineffective method of teaching, lack of well equipped laboratories and poor attitude of study by student are all challenges that impedes the effective teaching and learning of home economics in secondary schools. The study therefore recommends that The study therefore recommends that Government and education administrators should equip secondary school with physical facilities, modern equipment and laboratories in the different areas of home economics. More so Teachers in the system should be trained, and retrained to be updated with new skills, new methodology and technology in the Home Economics teaching and learning.
1.1Background of the study
The study of home economics has increased overtime in Nigeria; home economics as a subject play a significant role in the life of many in most of the Nigeria societies. Home economics can be seen to contribute to life in different ways; home economics as an aspect of vocational and technical education plays significant roles in the growth and development of the national economy through an improved teaching and learning skills.
Home economics as an aspect of vocational education is a skill oriented subject and requires the contributions of both human and material resources. The introduction of formal education in Nigeria has partially neglected vocational and technical education. Despite all efforts made to recognize it, yet little or no attention was given to it. For many years, there was no cogent development in the area of vocational education until 1981, when the National policy on Education was published. Due to this partial neglect in our educational system, vocational and technical education has suffered a major decline in quality, policy and directive in the country. Osifeso (2021)emphasized that the term either technical or vocational education has no single universally accepted definition but what is common is the various definitions is its goals and objectives that remain the same. Technical education has been defined as a phase of education designed to help the people, students and learners to acquire technical or manipulative skills required in industrial arts or applied sciences.
According to Akoka (2021) stated that home economics as an entrepreneurial-based and skill-oriented field of study is expected to equip learners with saleable skills that make for self-reliance and paid employment. Home economics as a field of study is divided into three major groups which are: Food and nutrition, Clothing and textile and Home management. The above mention groups of home economics cannot be properly taught without the provision of both human and materials resources. Even with the contributions of home economics to the growth and development of the national economy there are still some problems associated with home economics which is the problem of teaching the subject “home economics”. Over the years there have been series of challenges faced by most teachers in teaching home economics in schools and colleges. According to Rabiu (2017) stated that without funds these material resources cannot be made available and this will lead to poor quality teaching which in turns have a negative effect on learning abilities of the individual, poor motivation and frustration on the part of the students. It is against the backdrop that this study seeks to examine the problem of teaching and learning home economics in secondary schools.
1.2Statement of the problem
The study the challenges of teaching home economics in Nigeria schools and colleges can into being as a result of poor performance of students in home economics. These challenges is found mostly in secondary schools as some of the schools does not have home economics laboratory; this has had significance effect on the teaching and learning of home economics especially in the area of clothing and textile and food management; this aspect of home economics requires the use of materials such as sewing machine, cloth materials etc. As observed by Shehu(2020), for demonstration; at times the materials will be available but will not be enough to accommodate the students and this becomes a problem and has continue to impact student attitude towards the study negatively. This and many more lapses impede the effective teaching and learning of home economics in secondary schools which invariable gives teachers negative perception towards the subject and most times demotivate them from effectively carrying out their jobs.
1.3Objective of the study
The main focus of this study is to examine teachers perception of challenges of effective teaching and learning of home economics. Specifically the study seeks:
i. To examine the nature of home economics curriculum content in secondary school.
ii. To determine the impact of teaching home economic in secondary schools.
iii. To examine the factors that affects the effective teaching and learning of home economics in secondary schools..
iv. To proffer solutions to the problems of teaching and learning of home economics in secondary schools.
i. What is the nature of home economics curriculum content in secondary school ?
ii. What is the impact of learning home economic on student in secondary schools?
iii. What are the problems that affects the effective teaching and learning of home economics in secondary schools?
iv. What are the solutions to the problems of teaching and learning of home economics in secondary schools?
1.5Significance of the study
The study will be of immense benefit to the entire Oredo local government area, the schools and colleges; it will also help teachers to understand what is obtainable in the teaching and learning home economics. This study if need be, will direct the home economics teachers’ attention to the need for them to adopt more appropriate teaching method in order to bring about desirable experience in the students. Finally the study will serve as a reference material to other student and scholars that wishes to carry out similar research on the above topic.
1.6Scope of the study
the scope of this study borders on the problem of teaching and learning of home economics in secondary schools. The study is however delimited to selected secondary school in Oredo local government area in Edo State.
1.7Limitation of the study
The researcher was faced with the constraint of getting adequate information from students in the state due to the fact that most of them were not willing to reveal adequate information about their perception of the topics in the subject as some of them thought that the researcher might be seeing them as unserious students. More so, Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
1.8Definition of terms
Challenges: The situation of being faced with something that needs great mental or physical effort in order to be done successfully and therefore tests a person's ability
Home economics: This is a field of study that deals with the economics and management of the home and community. It deals with the relationship between individuals, families, communities, and the environment in which they live.
Learning: is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential change in synthesizing information, depth of the knowledge, attitude or behavior relative to the type and range of experience.