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A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION IN DUTSIN-MA TOWN, 1976 TO 2015

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ABSTRACT
Education is the bedrock and key to any nation’s national development. However, with the general standard of education in Nigerian Public Primary and Secondary Schools, there has been the demand for more schools to come in to compliment government efforts in the education sector through provision and delivering of high standard, quality and quantitative education. Therefore, this project work sets to analyze and explore the historical and educational reasons behind the History and establishment of Western Education in Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State with particular reference to Dutsin-Ma Town and its environs, as the study is from 1976 – 2015.  Thus, efficient method of research was applied to come up with a reliable result, in the form of conducting interviews with resource persons, as well as consulting newspapers, magazines, archival and government documents, internet among others. Consequently, all the necessary measures and proper solutions to all the stakeholders are provided in the recommendation section.
CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1  INTRODUCTION
The role of education in the development and transformation of human societies all over the world in the course of history cannot be overemphasized. This is because it is the wheel and hub which have propelled development and transformed the world to in all spheres. Education is important and central for societal development. Education has been the force behind the progress of all cultures and civilizations. However, western style of education came to “Ma” in the 20th century. This led to series of changes and development that transformed the society of “Ma”, even though it has its own limitations.
The introduction of Western style of education in Nigeria with the arrival of Wesleyan Christian Missionaries in Badagry in 1842.[i]  It played an active role in the provision of formal education for the people. Between 1842 and 1914,[ii]about ten different Christian missions arrived in Nigeria, and began intensive missionary and educational work. Schools were built for the purpose of disseminating education and conversion of people to Christianity. The missions began to struggle for pupils/members such that there was a proliferation of primary schools established by different missions. The education received was limited to 4Rs i.e reading, writing, arithmetic and religion.[iii] This new missionary education prepared the recipient for new job opportunities in colonial service such as teachers, clerks, messenger and interpreters. Emphasis was placed on character training, most of the missions established primary schools with little emphasis laid on secondary and higher education, at the initial stage.[iv]
Before 1940, Western education spread in schools through organized learning programs. Informal education is the learning which occurs outside the school programs in the south. Western education reached the northern part of the country when a missionary school was established at Lokoja in 1865. In 1865 the Bishop Crowther LGA Primary School was established in Lokoja, Kogi State by the Anglican missionary. It was then extended to other parts of northern states.[v]
Following the emergence of Katsina Kingdom in the 15th century, the capital was noted as a citadel of learning. This development is associated with the introduction of Islam in West Africa around the 14th century or much earlier. However, according to some oral traditions and Henry Barth, Katsina Kingdom came into being during the early part of 13th century with a ruling dynasty at Abuttai (when the seat of power was at Abuttai) where Katsina is presently situated.[vi] Thus the history of Katsina Kingdom can be fully understood when we look at the coming of Islam in Katsina even though the precise date of it is not known i.e. when Islam was first introduced.[vii].

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