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EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus)

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EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus)

ABSTRACT

Alternative plant protein sources are generally cheaper compared to animal protein sources and may be the solution to reduce the high dependence of farmers on fish meal due to the limited world supplies and increasing price of fishmeal. This study focuses on growth performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus); its gastric evacuation rate and carcass composition when fed with fresh aquatic plant and artificial diet.

Azollapinnataand artificial diet (control) were fed at 3% body weight of 90 Oreochromisniloticusweighing 24±1.43g for 56 days (8 weeks) in three treatments T1(artificial diet), T2 (artificial diet 50% and aquatic plant 50%) and T3 (aquatic plant); each having  three replicates. Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Protein Intake (PI) and Length-Weight Relationship were used to determine the growth performance and feed utilization. The serial slaughter method was used to determine Gastric Evacuation Rate (GER) and Gastric Transit Time (GTT). Proximate composition of fish carcass was determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using Descriptive analysis and ANOVA at α0.05.

Fish fed both artificial diet and aquatic plant T2 attained a significantly higher MGW and SGR, and attained the best correlation coefficient value which indicates a good relationship between length and weight. T1 and T2 showed no significant difference in FCR but were significantly lower than T3. The PER showed that T2 was significantly higher than T1 and T3. Duncan’s test of significance indicated that there was no significant difference in the daily feeding rate and GER of Oreocromisniloticusacross the treatments but GTT differed in T3. Fish fed only Azolla, T3 had a GTT of 3 hours where as T1 and T2 was 4 hours. Carcass proximate analysis showed that crude protein of T3 was significantly higher than T1. Fat content of T3 was significantly higher than those of T1 and T2.

Oreohchromisniloticusperformed better when fed with both artificial diet and aquatic plant, it also attained a higher crude protein level and lower moisture content when fed only aquatic plant compared to those fed only artificial diet.

Key words: Oreohchromisniloticus, utlilization of aquatic plant, growth performance, gastric evacuation, carcass composition

CONTENTS

Abstract                                                                                                                                  ii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Dedication                                                                                                                              vi

Certification                                                                                                                            vii

Table of contents                                                                                                                    viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                          xiv

List of Figures                                                                                                                         xv

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION                                                                                                     1

1.1       Tilapia culture in Aquaculture                                                                         1

1.2       Fresh Aquatic Plants as Plant Based Protein                                                              3

1.3       Problem statement                                                                                                      3

1.4       Justification of Study                                                                                                 4

1.5       Objectives of Study                                                                                                    4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                          5

2.1       Nile Tilapia Culture in Aquaculture                                                                            5

2.2       Oreochromisniloticus                                                                                                  6

2.2.1    Classification of Oreochromisniloticus                                                                       7

2.2.2    The Biology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus)                                                    7

2.2.3    Water Quality Parameters for Oreochromisniloticus                                                  9

2.3       Need for Aquatic Plants as Protein Source in Fish Feed                                            10

2.4       Azollapinnata                                                                                                              11

2.4.1    Classification of Azollapinnata                                                                                   12

2.4.2    Ecology, Distribution and Description of Azollapinnata                                            13

2.4.3 Reproduction of Azollapinnata                                                                                      14

2.4.4    Benefits of Azollato Plants                                                                                         14

2.4.5        Use of Azollain Bioremediation                                                                                  15

2.4.6        Use of Azollaas Nutritional Supplement for Livestock Feed                                     16

2.4.7        Use of Azollaas human food and component of space diet                                       18

2.4.8        Beneficial Effects of Azollaon Physio-chemical Properties of Soil                            18

2.4.9        Nutritional values and Chemical evaluation of Azollapinnata                                    19

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                              22

3.1       Project Site                                                                                                                  22

3.2       Procurement of Nile Tilapia juveniles and artificial feed                                           22

3.3       Procurement and Culture of Fresh Aquatic Plant (Azollapinnata)                             23

3.4       Experimental design and procedure                                                                           23

3.5       Water quality analysis                                                                                                 24

3.6       Proximate analysis of artificial feed and Azollapinnata                                             27

3.6.1    Determination of Ash Content                                                                                   27

3.6.2    Determination of Moisture Content                                                                          28

3.6.3    Determination of Crude fiber                                                                                     29

3.6.4    Determination of Protein Content                                                                              30

3.6.5    Determination of Fat Content                                                                                   31

3.6.6    Amino acid profile analysis of Azollapinnata                                                 32

3.7       Growth indices and Feed utilization indices                                                              32

3.7.1    Mean Weight Gain, MWG (g)                                                                                    32

3.7.2    Total percentage Weight Gain, TWG (%)                                                                  33

3.7.3    Specific Growth Rate (S.G.R) (%)                                                                             33

3.7.4    The Length-Weight Relationship                                                                                33

3.7.5    Condition Factor                                                                                                        34

3.7.6    Total Feed Intake (g) and Protein intake (g)                                                              35

3.7.7    Feed Conversion Ratio (F.C.R)                                                                                 35

3.7.8    Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)                                                                                 35

3.7.9    Survival rate                                                                                                                35

3.8       Gastric evacuation rate and Carcass composition                                                       36

3.9       Statistical analysis                                                                                                       36

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULTS                                                                                                                   38

4.1       Azollapinnata reproduction                                                                                         38

4.2       Water quality analysis                                                                                                 38

4.3       Proximate analysis of artificial diet (durante feed)                                                    38

4.4       Proximate composition and amino acid profile of Azollapinnata                               41

4.5       Growth indices                                                                                                           41

4.5.1    Length-Weight relationship                                                                                       45

4.5.2    Condition factor                                                                                                        45

4.6       Feed utilization indices                                                                                               45

4.7       Carcass composition of experimental fish in all treatments                                        51

4.8       Gastric evacuation rate of experimental fish in all treatments                                    51

4.9       Survival rate                                                                                                                51

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       DISCUSSION                                                                                                                        55

5.1       Azollapinnata reproduction                                                                                         55

5.2       Water quality analysis                                                                                                 55

5.3       Proximate analysis of artificial diet (durante feed)                                                    55

5.4       Proximate composition and amino acid profile of Azollapinnata                               55

5.5       Growth performance                                                                                                   56

5.5.1    Length-Weight relationship                                                                                        56

5.5.2    Condition factor                                                                                                         57

5.6       Carcass composition of experimental fish in all treatments                                        57

5.7       Gastric evacuation rate of experimental fish in all treatments                                    57

5.8       Survival rate                    &n


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