This research project, studies the effect of poor maintenance of art studio tools, equipment and machinery on the teaching and learning of art in tertiary institution, with special focus on I. M. T. ceramic studio. The purpose of the study is to identify the various ways in which poor maintenance of studio equipment affects students training in art and how students can engage in self help activities to reactivate machineries, other equipment and tools for effective studio practice. The scope of the project covers the study of dis–functional electric potters wheels understanding and identifying the problematic aspects of the equipment and how to repair and reactivate them. The significance of this project is the opportunity it affords, the art student to have a technical knowledge of some of the equipment and machines used in production of art works particularly in his or her area of specialization with such knowledge, the student artist prepared him or herself to meet with the challenge of studio practice anywhere, anytime. The researchers, takes look at different contribution of authors, which are related to this topic. Finally the researchers expose the effect of poor maintenance on tools and equipment and recommended ways how those in authority and Government could make provision in their budget for maintenance of faulty tools and equipments, before they are grounded. It is said that “a stitch in time saves nine”.
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY The issue of poor maintenance culture as it affects tools and equipment used in art production in tertiary institutions in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. It is a poor attitudinal behaviour which has eaten deep into the social fabric of the Nigerian people. It manifests in different aspects of the industrial life of the people. Most institutions of higher learning where Art is taught lack adequate infrastructure facilities and equipment for effective teaching and learning of art. Some of the institution that could boast of some facilities and equipment, have them in their dilapidated conditions were as a result of carelessness handling by student artists poor maintenance culture and total negligence on the part of departmental studio managers. This attitude to Art studio materials, equipment and machineries is in line with the general attitude prevailing within the nation. A visit to various ministries such as works and Housing: Agriculture citic will reveal sorry site of abandoned tractors, vehicles and other heavy equipment and machineries which otherwise would have been put to effective use in the pursuit of the objectives and goals of such ministries. It is not surprising therefore that professor Adesing Oladapo Aderisigbe of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile Ife would lament over inadequate funding in the faculty of Agriculture which has resulted in the abandonment of many of the facilities and equipment of the faculty for decades. (Kehinde Adio, 2005). The abandonment must have been as a result of their functional state which in most cases must have been as a result of poor maintenance. Writing on the collapsed Nukkei bridge in, Jalingo Taraba state, David Molomo (2005) quoted Alhaji Abubarka (Deputy Governor) is attributing the collapse of the bridge to poor structure and maintenance. Within the premises of the campus 2 of the Institute Of Management and Technology Enugu would be found a good number of water tankers, pail loader, and other vehicles which have been abandoned in a state of despair. At the industrial center would also be found, equipment for various productions which have not been assembled or have been allowed to rust. According to the Head of work and services department the institute lacks the necessary fund to put these vehicles and equipment back to life – hence their abandonment. From the foregoing it is discovered that lack of fund is one of the major factors responsible for the poor maintenance culture that is prevailing within the Nigeria system. Another major factor to consider is non availability of the required technical know how. Most staff within the ministries, display lack of technical competence in the handling of machine and other working equipment. Where there are competent hand, surely maintenance cost would be reduced as the required repairs parts would be procured and repairs effected without engaging “experts” whose services would be very exorbitant. Reporting on the repair being carried out on the Niger bridge, Nwabueze Okonkwo of Saturday sun pointed out that the Commissioner for works lamented that lack of maintenance culture which has affected the bridge since 1962. Architectural structures also suffer similar fate. There are reports of such collapsed buildings all around the country in recent times. Poor maintenance culture has been the bane of our country which is having very adverse effect on national growth and development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PEOBLEM Most art studio in institutions of higher learning have facilities for the teaching and practice of art but because of their conditions many of them are not functional this situation has affected student artist especially those who are specializing in ceramics. Because of financial constraints facing management, money is not readily available to repair such equipment like electric potters wheels, kick wheels, kilns, ball mill, blunger, and other higher equipment like pugmill and compressors. For lack of fund, electrical and mechanical experts cannot be consulted to effect repairs on these broken down equipment to this end, what is expected of the student artist whose progress in training depend on the availability of such tools and equipment.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to identify the possible ways art student can organize themselves through costless self help project to undertake effective repairs of broken down equipment and machineries in the art studio of their institutions that aid their training. 1.4 SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF PROJECT The scope of this project cover a study of the design of the non–functional electric wheel, with the aim of understanding the working relationship of the components and identifying the faults. It also covers the dismantling of the components with the aim of understanding the extent of damage and identifying steps to take in the restoration of functionality. Thirdly, it also covers the repair and replacement of damaged parts and finally the reassembling of the entire components. The project did not cover the historical development of potters where through the ages. It was not concerned with a comparative study of different electric wheels and their efficiency. Finally the project did not deal with design and production of new electric potters wheel.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF PROJECT The significance of this project is the new dimension it introduces in the study of art. Under this new dimension, students have the opportunity to study and understand the design and mode of operation of the tools, equipment and machinery that are used in art production particularly with reference to one’s area of specialization. In this regard the art student will not see his working tool or equipment as object whose production is beyond his scope of knowledge and understanding. This approach place the art student in a position of great advantage like the driver/ mechanic. He or she will be asked to overcome problems associated with production within the studio or the industry.
1.6 DEFININTON OF TERMS POTTERS WHEEL: Machine designed to help potters to produce circular forms from a lump of plastic clay place on it revolving wheel head. This machine could be powered manually by kicking a pedal with the foot or by electric motor. THROWNG: A method of producing ceramic form in which a lump of clay placed on a revolving wheel head is manipulated with the fingers to become cylindrical and consequently give the desired shape of a flower vase, or mug or cup or bowl. WHEEL HEAD : This is a flat round metal disk which usually revolves on a vertical shift on which clay lumps are place for the production of cylindrical clay forms. CERAMICS TOOLS: It is a light hand instrument used in preparing and extracting clay; on dealing forms, smoothening; felting and decorating clay ware. CERAMIC EQUIPMENT: ALL heavy duty machinery used in ceramic production such as kiln, potters wheel, pug mill, ventilation both spraying machine, spray gun, etc.
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research