THE APPLICATION OF FACILITIES MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ON HISTORICAL BUILDINGS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
This developing study seeks to establish the effectiveness of applying a multidisciplinary, approach, such as that of Facility Management (FM) to the conservation of Heritage Sites and their contents. As a developing, international business management profession, FM has spread globally at pace. It contains numerous linked specialist areas that differentiate it from more singular, traditional approaches taken towards building care. The approach can be defined in various ways, however; the interpretations of two of the leading professional bodies, within the field retain great similarity. (Francis, T J, Greens, A J and Littlewood, J (2010)
FM, according to the International Facilities Management Association (IFMA), is‘…a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensurefunctionality of the built environment by integrating people places, processes and technology.
Whilst, the British Institute of Facilities Management (BIFM 1996) define FM as:
‘… The integration of multi-disciplinary activities within the built environment, and the management of their impact upon people and the workplace.’
Concepts of: integration, multi-disciplinary skills, people and places, clearly pervade.
Day to day management of buildings and their contents has challenged succeeding generations for more than five millennia. Yet, it is within a period of rapid societal change, and following the evolution of highly complex, computer controlled and intensely serviced properties that FM has come to the fore. Initially founded within the office, health and defense sectors; it could be argued that this is a profession eminently suited to the care of contents and buildings that could be termed: special, cultural or iconic. Levels of care, environmental control and monitoring utilized within historic facilities; often have to be integrated and delivered to the highest possible standards if degradation of the contents and historic fabric is not to occur. (Francis, T J, Geens, A J and Littlewood, J (2010)
Although individual or socio-cultural groups may have their own opinions about what is historic and what it is not.
According to (Susan Harp of the Bureau of Historic Preservation United State of America). That the criteria to be used for evaluating of eligibility for listing in the National Register of historic places are as follows:
‘Districts, sites, building, structure and objects maybe considered to have significant in America history, architecture, archaeology, engineering and or culture if they possess integrity of ,location, design, setting materials, workmanship, feeling association
a. Are associated with events that have made significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history.
b. Are associated with the lives of persons significant in or past
c. Embody the distinctive characteristics of type, period, or method of construction or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artist value, or that represent a significant and distinguishes entity whose components may lack individual distinction
d. Have yielded or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history.
To preserve the integrity and significance of such properties in the face of aging this thesis principally aims at identifying the application and challenges faced by the custodian or facility managers of such properties in respect of the requisite actions necessary to prevent deterioration and extends the life and basic functions of historical buildings. Such actions will certainly include: the continuous care and protection involving minor and major repairs works carried out to building elements in order to keep it in good order thereby prolonging the life of such element and the entire building for as long as possible.
This will also require considerable administrative and managerial expertise to achieve the desired objective of preserving the historical identity and significance of such properties, to the highest practicable degree; the management must be effective and efficient in the utilization of resources in order to attain the set objectives through planning, organizing, directing and controlling available resources. (Management definition- Arazi El Al, 2009)
By extension, maintenance management for historical buildings involves the effective and efficient utilization of resources in the continuous care and protection of building elements in order to keep them in good order, maintain the building fabrics and its services and prolong the life of such element and hence the entire building for as long as possible. Where these properties have tourism potential, it is paramount to conserve these buildings by continuously caring and protecting them from being destroyed so as to prolong their life span and functions; it is quite natural that as buildings aged, they will be exposed to serious building defects and deterioration. It is a truism today that no building is maintenance free. As a result every building whether historic or new, requires care and protection to limit deterioration.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Facilities management practice in Nigeria is still in an early development cycle unlike in more developed countries like Europe, United States, etc where the practice has been on since 1980’s. Although facilities management in Nigeria has been embraced by some corporate organizations for effective productivity, some other sectors like the healthcare, manufacturing, educational and historic sectors are yet to explore the benefits of efficient facilities management on their performance. (Durodola, 2009)
There has been limited research on the facility management of Historical sites in Nigeria. There has been research done on ‘Embedding Sustainable Facility Management in the Management of Public Buildings in Nigeria’’ by (Adoni Abigo, Della Madgwick, Kassim Gidado and Stephen Okonji (2012).
Timothy Oladokun (2012) has research on the general Study of Facility Management Practice in Nigeria.
Dr. (Mrs) Ihuoma P. Asabaka has research on the Need for Effective Facility Management in Schools in Nigeria.
Durodola (2009) has research on the Management of Hotel Properties in South-Western Nigeria – Facility Management Perspective.
Historical buildings are building that were built and designed even before facilities management came into full fledge practice. Some issues that could make the work of the facilities managers a serious challenge include cost of repairs, policies set by governments, age, type of construction, degree of proximity or dispersion of the building, size and its use etc. The need of the study is borne out of the fact that most of the historical building are depreciating and they have lost their value. These statement problems are emanating these research questions
1.3. RESEARCH QUESTION.
What is the extent of application of Facilities Management on Historical buildings?
What is the level of performance of the application of Facility Management to Historical buildings?
What are the challenges faced in the application of Facility Management on Historical building.
1.4. AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to examine the level of application of facilities management on Tafawa Balewa Square (TBS) Lagos,
To determine the extent of application of Facility Management on Tafawa Balewa Square.
To determine the performance of application of Facility Management on Tafawa Balewa Square.
·To determine the challenges facing the applications of Facility Management on Tafawa Balewa Square.
1.5. STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
H0: Facility Management principles are not being significantly applied to the management of Tafawa Balewa Square.
H1: Facility Management principles are significantly applied to the management of Tafawa Balewa Square.
H0: There is no difference in the contribution of the factors that constitute challenges to the application of Facility Management principle of the case study.
H1: There is a difference in the contribution of the factors that constitute challenges to the application of Facility Management principle of the case study.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study will help to articulate the philosophy behind the idea (concept) of application of facilities management principles on historical buildings. It will bare the present challenges of this emerging field and those that are likely to spring up in the future and also highlight the various challenges that the facility custodian could be facing. It will also provide data for further research in this field and add to the existing body of knowledge in the sphere of FM. It is anticipated that the study will provide useful information to policy makers in Nigeria on how to cultivate an appropriate maintenance culture for our National Treasures.
This study promotes public awareness on the process of planning and managing of historical buildings and its facilities. It will assist government to realize the extent to which adequate provisions should be made available for effective management of our National Treasures. The effect of this will improve and help in the longevity of our National Treasures.
It is anticipated that the study will provide useful information to policy makers in Nigeria on how to cultivate an appropriate maintenance culture for our National Treasures.
This study promotes public awareness on the process of planning and managing of historical buildings and its facilities. It will assist government to realize the extent to which adequate provisions should be made available for effective management of our National Treasures.
1.7. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
All historical buildings are all unique in design, structure, building elements and fabrics, purpose of existence.etc. It was impossible to measure, analyze the application and challenges facing Facilities Management of Historical buildings in Nigeria. Hence the research was limited to Lagos State which happens to house most of the historical buildings in Nigeria; the study was further limited to a particular historical building in other to have an in depth and to have a generic knowledge of study and being the history behind the building (Tafawa Balewa Square) was selected has the case study. Tafawa Balewa Square is the place where Nigeria to its independence in October, 1, 1960. It was name after the first Nigerian Prime Minister.
1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS.
1. Facility Management: facility management is defined as the proactive management of constructed facilities and organizational assets to improve their efficiency and add value to their performance and services.
2. Management Style: This refers to property asset sustenance method that is being applied in the running of the building and it could be maintenance management, property management or facilities management.
3. Facilities: Facilities includes the structures, services, building elements, equipment that supports the effective use of the building.
4. Historical buildings. These are ancient structure that has a significant role to a community or nation.