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THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Social media is an umbrella term for a variety of web-based tools and services aimed at advancing community development via interactions and information dissemination (Arnold & Paulus, 2010). Additionally, they say that the technologies facilitate both personal expression and interaction with other users. According to Junco, Helbergert, & Loken (2011), social media promotes collaboration and information exchange. Social media may be utilized effectively in academic contexts to increase student engagement and accelerate student learning (Kabilan, Ahmad & Abidin, 2010). However, Skenazy (2009) emphasized that while people conceive of phones as communication tools, the truth may be quite the opposite. According to Davidson (2011), individuals are adjusting to new communication norms in an increasingly digital environment, learning to quickly attend to, process, and respond to many and occasionally concurrent messages. Given the numerous ways in which digital communication outfits may continue to influence teaching and learning practices, instructional communication researchers should do programmatic research to better understand how these tools affect classroom communication and, as a result, learning outcomes (Schuck & Aubusson, 2010).

Kuppuswamy & Narayan (2010) argued that while social networks divert students' attention and concentration away from learning and toward non-educational activities such as pointless and unnecessary chatting, these social networking websites can be beneficial for education when used in conjunction with sound pedagogical practices that utilize online social networking sites to support student learning for a variety of educational purposes. As a result of this explanation, social networks may be fully researched in order to give diverse learning possibilities and hence ease student learning processes. Access to social networks via mobile phones enhanced secondary school students' active engagement in social life, especially during school hours. This tendency makes it extremely difficult to teach and understand those groups of students. As a result, this study investigated the influence of social networks on student academic achievement, particularly in secondary schools in Nigeria. The question here is not whether it benefits the student to connect socially through an open electronic medium, but how it affects their academics negatively or favorably, consequently lowering or raising their academic achievement.

Several research have been conducted on the influence of social media on the learning outcomes of students in universities and schools. Numerous research have established that social media has both beneficial and bad effects on students' academic progress in education (Espinosa, Laffey, Whittaker & Sheng, 2006). However, research have not shown that social media has an influence on pupils' performance in secondary schools. However, this study will examine the usage of social media in secondary school teaching and learning in Nigeria.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Recently, youngsters of school age have shown a strong interest in communicating via various sorts of social networking sites. In terms of global patronage, Facebook is the most popular of these sites, followed by Twitter. The most active users of these social networking sites are teenagers who use them to interact with friends, images, videos, and games. While some researches assert that students' usage of SNS enhances their academic performance (Ovute & Ovute, 2015). Others say that it has had a detrimental effect on the learners' behavior and academic progress (Morgan, Grahan, & Hodges, 2012). It has been noted that the majority of secondary school pupils in Nigeria are no longer concerned about their education. This might be because, rather of concentrating on their academics, they are either conversing with friends and acquaintances on Facebook, Instagram, or Whatsapp, or updating their status on Twitter. This odious tendency may divert students' attention away from their books or from being attentive throughout the teaching and learning process, since they have lost interest in learning. This is consistent with Csikszentmihalyi's (1975) Flow Theory.

Csikszentmihalyi (1975) sought to understand why artists, particularly painters, become so absorbed in their work that they neglected their basic requirements for food, drink, and sleep. This approach placed a premium on the holistic sensations that individuals experience when they engage fully in activities they like. It denotes complete immersion in a job to the point that the individual is drawn to and carried away by the activity at hand. As such, this study will examine the usage of social media in secondary school teaching and learning in Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to examine the use of social media in teaching and learning in secondary schools. Other objectives of this study are:

i.          To find out the extent social media is used in teaching and learning in secondary schools.

ii.        To find out the different types of social media used in the teaching and learning in secondary schools.

iii.      To determine whether social media has an impact on the academic performance of students in secondary schools.

iv.      To examine the effects of social media in the teaching and learning in secondary schools.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

i.          To what extent is social media used in teaching and learning in secondary schools?

ii.        What are the different types of social media used in the teaching and learning in secondary schools?

iii.      Does social media have an impact on the academic performance of students in secondary schools?

iv.      What are the effects of social media in the teaching and learning in secondary schools?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will assist students, instructors, school administrators, curriculum planners, educational stakeholders, and Ministries of Education at all levels of government significantly. The findings from this study will be extremely beneficial since they will improve students' learning processes and hence their overall academic performance, as they will raise students' motivation, give clarity to the topics presented, and make learning more entertaining. Additionally, the findings of this study will assist to re-emphasize the value of social media in boosting teaching and learning for secondary school instructors. And this offers a foundation that complements and supports the application of teaching skills, hence increasing effectiveness.

The findings of this study will also aid in revealing and raising awareness among school administrators about the importance or otherwise of social media's influence on teaching and learning in secondary schools. Additionally, the outcomes of this study will have a significant impact on education ministries at all levels of government in Nigeria. This is because it will educate the government that providing social media would improve teaching and learning, as well as academic success.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is focused on examining the use of social media in teaching and learning in secondary schools. Specifically, this study is focused on finding out the extent social media is used in teaching and learning in secondary schools, finding out the different types of social media used in the teaching and learning in secondary schools, determining whether social media has an impact on the academic performance of students in secondary schools and examining the effects of social media in the teaching and learning in secondary schools.

Teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Otukpo, Benue State will serve as respondents for this study.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse's nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Learning: Is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviours, skills, values or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.

Teaching: Teaching is the concerted sharing of knowledge and experience, which is usually organized within a discipline and more generally, the provision of stimulus to the psychological and intellectual growth of students by teachers.

Social media: Social media are interactive technologies and digital channels that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, interests, and other forms of expression through virtual communities and networks.


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