This study is on efficiency and effectiveness of security agencies in Nigeria ports. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Nigeria port Authority, portharcourt, Rivers state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made marine engineers, firemen, seamen and signal officers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background of the study
Nigeria is indeed one of the greatest maritime nations of the world; this is confirmed by both the local maritime operators and foreign maritime operators. Ports are supposed to be security zones and policed as such to prevents crimes mainly theft, smuggling among sabotage attacks, stowaway. In olden days, theft as merely limited to petty pilferage and broaching of cartons by Dockers only tilling their pockets that would neither attract attention nor cause appreciable loss to the cargo consignee. The crime latter escalated to piracy onboard vessels at anchorage. Crews were violently robbed and cargo stolen, with some measure of success in checking piracy at anchorage, attention shifted to the ports proper. There are many security agents both conventiona1l recognized law enforcement agents and the fadeless ones purporting to be government officials seeing to the general security of our ports These notwithstanding the ports are being easily accessible to a multitude of hoodlums now popularly known as “what rats” and syndicates of other malefactors actors who have made the ports their homes. They vandalize the lighting system to enable them carry out their natural and notorious activities. Any degree of crimes can now be perpetrated by these hoodlums acting in cohorts with some of the security agents, and port official. Crewmembers going ashore are sometimes violently attacked and robbed within and outside the ports. Cargo theft has grown from breaking any types of package within the ports to complete disappearance of container out of the ports. Cargos are being successfully cleared from the port by spurious owners. Ships are boarded by unauthorized persons who steal both cargoes and ship property including those relate to safety. What a criminal act! Vehicular cargoes are more vulnerable to plunder age because of the attention they attract. They are loaded with some goods that are not made parks where they normally await clearing. They are securely locked and then keys are handed to security officials for safety. But most of these vehicles with or without undeclared goods are mysteriously opened and their valuable parts are stolen Clearing of cargoes is a process which the shippers, freight forwarded and consignees thinks is as difficult as the head of the camel having to pass through the eye of1the needle The customs long room is being made too “long” for clearing agents Problems with all department involved in the clearing start from the usual indifferences to work, the officials thinking that they are doing the agents favour The agents must “co-operate” with the officials, otherwise their entries will either be unnecessarily delayed further or completely lost in the labyrinth of bureaucracy Having survived the voracity these official and the goods released the clearing agent face the cast ordeal of having to “settle” all other security agents and officials even with authentic release documents Some of the security men still go outside the ports to intercept and tort the consignee for “settlement” Coupled with factors like high port tariffs, port insecurity is now causing Nigerian ports serious loss of clientele to neighbouring ports. Lome and Cotonou for example, although in charter parties and ordinary contracts of affreightment where carriage of goods by sea Act 1971 does not apply to the operating bills of lading. Ship owners can exclude liability for loss of or damage to cargo arising from piratical acts generally the Act (COGSA “71”) does not provide such that Nigeria has joined the club of port stigmatized as dangerous in insurance circle. Consequently, ship owners and shippers pays higher premiums for ships and cargoes, a burden that is ultimately passed to the public consumers.
If Nigeria must grow both politically and economically, there are needs for an efficient and effective security system for safety of cargoes id ship including the crews. There should be both the activities of the appropriate authority and the private sectors to ensure that security at the port be maintained.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Crewmembers going ashore are sometimes violently attacked and robbed within and outside the ports. Cargo theft has grown from breaking any types of package within the ports to complete disappearance of container out of the ports. Cargos are being successfully cleared from the port by spurious owners. Ships are boarded by unauthorized persons who steal both cargoes and ship property including those relate to safety. What a criminal act! Vehicular cargoes are more vulnerable to plunder age because of the attention they attract. On this background the researcher wants to investigate efficiency and effectiveness of security agencies in Nigeria ports
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study includes:
1. To highlight the importance of security agents in ports. 2. To evaluate the performances of security agents in ports 3. To focus attention on factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no importance of security agents in ports
H1: there is an importance of security agents in ports
H02: there are no factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports
H2: there are factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will give clear insight on efficiency and effectiveness of security agencies in Nigeria. The study will be beneficial to students, Nigeria port authority and the general public. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers that want to embark on this study.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers efficiency and effectiveness of security agencies in Nigeria ports. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
EFFICIENCY: Efficiency is the ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. In a more general sense, it is the ability to do things well, successfully, and without waste
EFFECTIVENESS:Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression.
SECURITY AGENCY: A security agency is a governmental organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation
PORT: A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study