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ROUTE SURVEY AND DESIGN OF PAREMENT OF ROAD

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ABSTRACT

The study cover a view and a detailed explanation of the modification required to be carried out on the main access road linkage of the Campus III Industrial center from federal Secretariat to Mass Communication Department of the Institution in order to update its services and functions.

The need for easing the flow of traffic on this access road shall rise, since it s a commercial center in the institution. It is required that the toad be revamped and generally upgraded. The existing road is no longer in peak condition and a result of traffic growth.

The study modification therefore involves the assessment of the roads present condition, involving carrying out side test, and surveys etc, as to what could be done and how best to enhance traffic flow.

TABLE CONTENTS

Certification

Dedication

Abstract

Acknowledgement

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

General introduction

Design application

Aim and objective

Advantages of road

Reconnaissance survey

Route survey

CHAPTER TWO

Theodolite transversing of the road control

Importance of theodoversing

Equipment used on traversing

Procedure

Conversion of angles to bearing  (whole area bearing

Rectangular co-ordinate

CHAPTER THREE

Field leveling work general survey

Need for preliminary survey leveling work

Technical term used in leveling

Aim

Application of leveling

Instrument in leveling’

Operation condition’’

Leveling of the road

Reduction of filed data

Brief description on profile and cross sectional leveling

Uses of profile plot

Leveling tabulating

Earth work computation

CHAPTER FOUR

Soil identification/laboratory test

Soil identification

Laboratory test performed in soil

Test to be carried out

Soil sampling

Sieve/particles size analysis

Aim and scope

Material and equipment

Test producers

Constancy limits

Liquid limit of soil

Objective and scope

Material and  equipment

Test procedure

Plasticity index

Soil classification based in plasticity

Significance fo the study

Compaction

Objective and scope

Materials and equipment

Test procedure

California bearing ratio (cbr)

Objective scope

Material and equipment

Test procedure

Borrow materials for sub-base

Laboratory test on the borrowed materials

Cbr rating

Tabulation for mechanical analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

Design vehicles

Design speed

Highway capacity

Deign guide

Design period

Basic design element horizontal alignment

Vertical alignment

Vertical curvature

Standard for grade

Co-ordination of vertical and horizontal alignment

Deign of curves

Pavement layers

Pavement design

Design facts the engineer should know for design

Preparation

Pavement widening

Pavement material

Component pavement and their functions

Design of road pavement

Calculation of cbr value

Vertical and horizontal curve design

Design procedure

Services life of pavement

Drainage design

Basic policy on drainage design

Road side drainage channels

Erosion protection

Conclusion and recommendation

Reference

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

For effective design and control of the road system by w\engineers, there is demand of a close study of human behaviour with an understanding of the limitation of human performance in the varied circumstances of the road environment.

The following factors has to be s\considered

The road user

The vehicle

The road environment

These form a complex interactive system where performance is measured in terms of worthwhile investment leading to user confidence and acceptability, which in turn enable balance to be draw between physical and legislature control

Each individual has certain basic physical attributes such as bearing, vision, strength, and mobility, all of which are amenable to measurement. under different circumstances, and at different times, the measured values of these characteristics may well vary with an individual according to imposed condition such as fatigue cramp cold or changed o\psychological state.

Well-designed roads and vehicles, suitable for their environment, help to limit variability and together with better reduces possibility of poor performance.

Factors, which influence behaviours, are

a. Motivation

b. Environmental influence

c. Education

1.1. 1 DESIGN APPLICATION

Road user factor must be at the forefront of design and the following points should be noted. Higher operating speeds require more adequate warning devices located nearer to minimum, clearing demarcating intended vehicles and pedestrian path.

1.1.2.1 THE VEHICLE

For many purpose, the vehicle has less characteristic than road users and in any event, these feature can be legislating controlled within defined limit.

1.1.2  VISIBILITY

It has already been stated that situation perception is essential and this vehicles body must interfere as little as possible with filed of view

1.01.4  THE ROAD

The alignment of a road is a major factor in determining how safely and efficiently it will meet the traffic demand. Alignment are dependent on the topography, the nature of the traffic and the functional use of the road .it is essential that their horizontal and vertical profiles be considered together in a three- dimensional process giving the road a flowing alignment, which enhance both safety and visual appreciation.

1.2. SCOPE OF PROJECT

The scope of work comprises mainly re-design of the entire six hundred twenty meters (620m) road and modification of road curves

The available material that were used for the project are information from textbooks, journals and periodical were fruitfully utilized soiltest and route surveys were carried out.

1.3. AIM AND OBJECTIVE

The deteriorating nature of the roads has made movement in the environment uneasy, the need for easing and improving the flow of traffic on this access road has risen, since the road linked to a commercial center (ie industrial center IMT) in the institution. The project is aimed at studying the nature of the road. It is also aimed at re-designing and modifying a suitable road for easy flow of traffic and enable it perform it’s function for the present and future.

The  overall objective  is to allow the movement of the greatest numbers of vehicles possible at the highest speed possible within law and maximum safety. The standards used in the design of any highway should be as high as is commensurate with the major control to all future improvement with minimum investment loss.

1.4   ADVANTAGES OF A ROAD TRANSPORTATION

Road is pre-requisite to speed and speed is essential or progress .it is different enumerate all the advantages of roads.

Main advantages of roads

1. Road  facilitate the movement of men and materials from one place to another.

2. Educational contact can be maintained, with the help of good roads

3. Resources of an area are easily tapped and o\improved with the help pf goal network of roads

1. The are essential for the economic prosperity and general development.

2. Road provides a key element of the infrastructure whose function growth usually condensates in areas where transport fatalities are good.

1.4     RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY

Reconnaissance survey gives an insight on the nature of work required. It is a rapid examination  of the ground and its adjacent natural features so as to obtain maximum information on the physical condition of the site. it is usually done without instrument to limit the alternative route in terms of constant energy.

1.4.1  CHAIN SURVEY CLINEAR MEASUREMENT

This method employs the use of tape-band for measurement. Linear measurement and it largely depends on the required accuracy. High accuracy may not be achieved.

1.4.2  STATION MARKING

REASONS FOR STATION MARKING

1. To avoid human traffic interference

2. Easy location traffic points for quick survey

3. The point were fixed on a firmly permanent way so that they can be available for letter use, nails were driven to bottle corks which was used to identify chainages.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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