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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRENGTH OF CONCRETES MADE FROM VARIOUS AGGREGATE

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE FROM VARIOUS AGGREGATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

This work was to present in one weight, the fundamental and practical information in the filed of the comparative analysis of the strength of concrete made from various aggregate which may be useful to people involve in civil and structural engineering and particularly, those that found pleasure in the design and related structure.

Due to  the strength/high cost of various aggregate in the market the  comparative analysis of strength of concrete  indifferent aggregate have revealed that one can definitely substituted in various aggregate by using the mixture design  of ration in different aggregate in building to reduce the mixture ration of aggregate or used any of the aggregates.

Where their is no granite stone washed gravel most black gravel is there  no black gravel must in such area there will be surface gravel in the project is going to be sited.

A great effort have been made through out this work although it is limited in scope to asses their suitability as stand and concrete aggregate.

High cost of building materials has been the bane of construction industry in the developing countries of the world as a result of importation of most of the building materials. As prices increase sharply, there is a growing awareness to relate research to local materials as alternatives for the construction of functional but low-cost dwellings both in the urban and rural areas of Nigeria. One of such local material that is being researched is lateritic soil. Lateritic soil has been one of the major building materials in Nigeria for a long time. The main reason lies on the fact that it is readily available and the cost of procuring it is relatively low.

Concrete aggregates in soil possesses other advantages which makes it potentially a very good and appropriate material for construction, especially for the construction of rural structures in the developing countries. These merits include little or no specialized skilled labour required for laterized sandcrete blocks production and for its use in other construction works; and laterized concrete structures have potentially sufficient strength compared with that of normal concrete (Lasisi and Ogunjimi,1984).

In July 1976, the Nigerian Mining Corporation was directed to proceed with establishment of seven clay brick plants in Nigeria with annual production capacity of fifteen million normal size bricks (figure 1). Clay deposits for use by these plants were identified (Proda 1970, 1971, 1975a, 1975b and 1975c) as shown in table 1. Rather than studying, and developing the traditional technology, Nigeria automatically copied a highly automated brick making which is capital intensive and therefore, kept the unit cost of bricks too high for the average Nigerian to afford. The Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NIBRRI) thereafter introduced the soil - cement blocks using manual press for its production. This kept unit cost of the soil cement block down and affordable, but some characteristics of the soil-cement blocks needed to be improved by use of highly sandy concrete aggregates; which are already being used as fills in Nigeria (Otoko 2014)

Figure 1: Brick Plants In Nigeria.

Key

 Brick plants owned by the Nigerian Mining Cooperation.

   Bricks plants owned by Private entrepreneurs.

1.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVE

This case study the comparative analysis of the strength of concrete made from various aggregates.

The project implement the following analysis.

1. To determine the analysis in the existing aggregates and evaluate it’s suitability for use as a good building of aggregates by means of various laboratory tests.

2. To determine the strength of concrete cube in difference aggregates in soil laboratory with a view to have on alternative in the building construction.

3. To effect the reduction of rising in the building construction by using deference aggregates.

This paper demonstrates the influence of concrete aggregates on compressive and tensile strength, the initial rate of water absorption (IRA) water absorption, surface porosity and pore size, stress-strain relationships and elastic properties of soil-cement blocks. Also the strength of the cement stabilized blocks of literate soil was determined in the soil laboratory with a view to have an alternative in the building industry, after which an analysis of the existing laterite soil was done.

1.3 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

It has been stated that maximum size and grading of aggregates are very important find aggregate result in uneconomical mixes where as very coarse –grained soils result in harsh unworkable mixes.

The mean size or grading of many aggregate can be obtained by passing the materials in a set of sieves consisting usually of certain standard sizes. The sieves number is been expressed as the member per inches.

The sieve analysis should also conformed to the B. S. 410of 1969 for sieves for purpose of testing the procedure involve in making sieve analysis should also conform to the B. S. standard method that is involved in carrying out the sieve analysis of time and coarse aggregate.

The aggregate were carefully washed to eliminate dust particles and some other of organics mater present in it so the aggregate should be dust and dust free of any kind. After the wash of aggregate were kept to dry in a place for 24 hours with kept help of electric oven.

The particle were weight and e recorded the % retained passing sieve at each times the graph below shows the result got from each case.

PROJECT BUILDING MATERIALS

Table 1: Principal clay deposits in Nigeria.

S/No

State

Location of principal deposits

1.

Benue and Plateau State

Jos, Ropp and Markurdi areas

2.

Imo, Ebonyi, Enugu and Anambra States

Enugu, Ezi  Akwu, Ekwe and Agbahara

3.

Kano State

Kano and Rimi areas

4.

Lagos State

Epe, Ikorodu and Badagry areas

5.

Edo and Delta States

Benin city, Sapele and Ugheli areas

6.

Borno State

Maiduguri and Gombe areas

7

Sokoto State

Sokoto and Kuban village

8.

Rivers State

Port Harcourt and Andoni areas

9.

Akwa Ibom and Cross River State

Ekpene Obom area

10.

Ogun State

Abeokuta and Ijebu-Ode areas

Lateritic weathering products derived from rock types of various parts of Nigeria may not be the same.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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