ANALYSIS ON THE SAFETY AND MANAGEMENT METHOD OF FIRE FIGHTERS IN MANAGING FIRE OUTBREAK IN NIGERIA
Background of the study
There is a significant danger posed to people, animals, and even property by fires that originate from a range of different sources. It is thus of the utmost importance that fire departments, as designated and granted powers by the appropriate authorities, establish adequate and effective plans to not only manage fires and the damages that ensue after an outbreak of fire, but also to avoid fire breakouts. A multitude of elements, including the financial capacity to prevent fires and put them out when they do occur, are among those that influence the efficacy of strategies for fire prevention and management (Smith, 2021). When compared to affluent nations, underdeveloped countries confront a whole different set of issues when it comes to the prevention and control of fires. Many of the structures that make up informal settlements in underdeveloped countries are poorly linked to sources of electricity and serve many uses, like the three-in-one buildings that are ubiquitous in China (Smith, 2021). This article's goal is to conduct a literature study on the subject of fire prevention and management strategies in developing nations such as Albania and the Balkans. Protection against and management of fires in less developed countries It is not unusual to hear news reports about the spread of wildfires in Albania and the Balkans. For instance, in 2012, dry conditions and extended periods of unusually high temperatures contributed to the outbreak of a forest fire that destroyed parts of the region near Lake Boracko (Milisic, 2019). In a similar vein, Albania has seen its fair share of fires, both domestic and wild, and the aftermath has been as devastating. In Albania, a total of 352 fires were documented during the years 2006 and 2007, which resulted in the tragic loss of human lives, as well as those of wild animals and ecosystems (ClimateChangePost, 2016). The Mediterranean region, in which Albania and the Balkans are located, has seen an uptick in the length of time it takes for droughts to break, along with a rise in the average summertime temperature and an increase in the amount of dry, hot weather. Countries that are located within the Mediterranean have strengthened their plans to put out fires in response to other factual facts, such as the impact that humans have had on the environment. Other examples of nations that are considered to be undeveloped include Ghana, Zimbabwe, and Nigeria. Fires have wreaked havoc on the ecosystems and residential areas of these countries. According to IRIN (2021), underdeveloped countries are the countries that are hardest hit by fires and recover the slowest from such incidents due to a lack of current innovations to prevent and manage the fires. In addition, underdeveloped countries are the countries that have the most difficulty fighting fires. In addition to having ineffective methods of prevention and control, developing nations continue to use antiquated methods, such as removing and burning waste in farmlands before cultivating the land. This makes it more likely that developing nations like Ghana would experience a catastrophic wildfire outbreak (Meddour-Sahar, 2015). Countries that are doing well economically, such as Spain and Turkey, have strengthened their fire prevention and management policies by pouring significant resources into their firefighter workforce. For instance, Europe has made significant investments in many types of firefighting equipment. As a result, its aircraft and helicopter firefighting fleets are the biggest in the world. On the other hand, less developed nations like those in the Balkans and Albania continue to struggle with issues related to fire prevention and control. In order to be adequately prepared for a catastrophe, large investments in terms of both the provision of necessary equipment and the education of employees are required. In order to successfully navigate the intricate process of preparation and management in fire safety, one must make effective use of information, insight, innovation, integration, and engagement (Milisic, 2019). It is very necessary to amass a significant amount of knowledge on the probable causes of fires, as well as the potential remedies and preventive measures, prior to formulating and putting into action methods for fire protection and management (IRIN, 2021). In order for the strategists to make judgments that are well-informed and reflect the optimal use of preventive measures, the information that is now accessible should be subjected to rigorous analysis. The information may then be utilized to provide residents with knowledge on how to avoid fires and the procedures to follow in the event that a fire breaks out. This knowledge can then be used to give citizens more power. For instance, informal settlements in developing nations are at a greater risk of experiencing fire outbreaks owing to inadequate electricity connections and the use of outdated ways of cooking, both of which raise the probability of fire outbreaks occurring. Not only may the danger be mitigated by providing individuals of this kind with knowledge on the preventative measures that can be taken against the emergence of fires, but it can also assist them in recovering from the effects of such catastrophes. One of the tactics that is highly suggested for preventing fires is educating people on how to stay safe in a fire (Milisic, 2019). However, educating people requires significant investments, and strained budgets, misplaced priorities, and a lack of knowledge regarding how to manage fires are some of the challenges that prevent underdeveloped countries from achieving their goals of protecting themselves from fires and managing them when they do occur. According to Milisic, just being aware of fires and the many methods for preventing them is not sufficient to put an end to the hazard (2019). The formulation of plans that can be put into action is facilitated by the insightful translation of data into meaningful information. An insightful study of the material permits the development of strategies that may apply the knowledge obtained to circumstances that occur in real life. The epiphany that results from processing such data may take the shape of an epiphany or it may take the form of statistical procedures. Again, this calls for a significant investment in fire protection techniques, which the majority of less developed nations, like those in the Balkans and Albania, do not have. The communities and the authorities that have been assigned to handle fire prevention and management are encouraged to communicate when further information is gained about the situation. The interaction provides further insight into methods for fire prevention and management in the sense that the solutions may be adapted to meet the specific requirements of a variety of communities. For instance, a community that relies on pastoralists for their livelihood would need a different approach to fire prevention and control than a population that lives in overpopulated informal settlements. Insight is the seed from which innovation grows. The ability to innovate makes it possible to develop novel programs that are designed to make fire prevention and management easier. It is not enough for communities to only take a passive role in the protection and control of fires for this to be an effective method of fire prevention. The strategists are able to construct artistically designed and one-of-a-kind programs with the assistance of innovation. These programs stimulate the involvement and engagement of the people of the community in the process of fire prevention. Participation in community activities may be expensive, which is particularly problematic for nations that have little financial resources. On the other hand, the creative function of innovativeness assists strategists in developing plans that are tailored to meet the specific requirements of a variety of communities. Communities who live in informal settlements in metropolitan areas, for instance, should be given more agency via the implementation of programs that encourage the safer use of sources of fire. Therefore, the study analyses the safety and management method of fire fighters in managing fire outbreak in Nigeria.
Statement of the problem
The weak economy of the country is being put under significant pressure as a direct result of the prevalence of severe fire incidents that occur in structures (Kyessi, 2022). According to the national disaster management authority, several significant public structures including marketplaces, office buildings, filling stations, and schools have been burned by flames, resulting in the loss of numerous lives and assets valued at several billions of naira. Nevertheless, Yohannes, Jacob, and Huba (2020) pointed out in their research that market fires have caused many people to lose their jobs, have caused harm to the environment, have disrupted economic activity, and have made the issue of poverty worse. In the event of a fire, it is necessary to provide safety for both the lives of people and the buildings themselves. Human factors such as carelessness, ignorance, or a simple lack of information about fire safety may lead to the breakout of fires (Zmud, 2018). Hence, this study seeks to analyze the safety and management method of fire fighters in managing fire outbreak in Nigeria.
Objective of the study
The general objective of the study is to analyze the safety and management method of fire fighters in managing fire outbreak in Nigeria. The specific objective is as follows:
To find out the various types of equipment fire fighters use in managing fire outbreak.
To investigate the various fire protection tips available in case of a fire outbreak.
To identify the safety measures fire fighters uses to manage a fire outbreak.
To recommend strategies that can be used to avert the outbreak of fire.
The following questions have been prepared for the study:
What are the various types of equipment fire fighters use in managing fire outbreak?
What are the various fire protection tips available in case of a fire outbreak?
What are the safety measures fire fighters uses to manage a fire outbreak?
What are the recommended strategies that can be used to avert the outbreak of fire?
Significance of the study
The study will be of benefit to the Nigerian government , as the findings of the study will reveal the challenges faced by the fire service department in the place of inadequate equipment to tackle fire outbreak in the country.
The study will also be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study will find out the various types of equipment fire fighters use in managing fire outbreak. The study will also investigate the various fire protection tips available in case of a fire outbreak. The study will further identify the safety measures fire fighters uses to manage a fire outbreak. Lastly, the study will recommend strategies that can be used to avert the outbreak of fire. Hence this study will be delimited to Abuja fire service department.
1.7 Limitation of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.8 Definition of terms
Safety: the condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury.
Management: the process of dealing with or controlling things or people.