A CRITICAL INVESTIGATION ON SAFETY PRACTICE AMONG CONSTRUCTION BASED COMPANIES IN KANO STATE
This study was carried out to investigate on safety practice among construction based companies using Dantata & Sawoe Construction Company Ltd, Kano State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of staff of Dantata & Sawoe Construction Company Ltd, Kano State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 148 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the attitude of workers/contractors towards safety management is positive.The study also revealed that the problems affecting the implementation of safety management in the construction site includes: shortage of knowledge and training, lack of supervision, biological agents, awareness about the safe implementation of assigned work, ergonomic hazards, lack of knowledge and pattern of illness, and apathy and total carelessness. Further findings showed that the strategies for promoting effective safety management in the construction industry includes: supervision, health and safety warning signs, risk management, effective communication, safety incentives, and proper equipment.Therefore, it is recommended that efforts should be intensified by contracting construction firms in devising improved strategy to determine and forestall hazard inherent in a given project before embarking on it. To mention but a few.
1.1 Background Of The Study.
Construction is one of the most dangerous occupations. One in six fatal accidents at work occurs on a construction site around the world. Yet the causes of accident are well known and almost all presentable and as other business issues, occupational safety and health (OSH) can be managed in the enterprise. It is commonly known that accidents have serious implications to the construction industry both in financial and humanitarian terms. Construction accidents may cause many problems, such as demonstration of worker, disruption of site activities, delay of project progress and adversely affecting the overall cost, productivity and reputation of the construction industry (Mohammed, 2010).
In Nigeria, the cost of accidents accounts 8.5% of the total turnover price (Nchekwube 2019) considering the adverse impacts of accidents, construction safety management is of genuine concern to all stakeholders in the construction industry. Government unions and insurers have spent a greatest of time and effort attempting to evolve legislation, rules and regulations to help reduce the large loss of life and luns and the highs number of “ lost work days” (Goldsmith, 2017).
In USA, the practice of safety in construction is regulated by governmental safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which provides strict rules and regulations to everyone safety and health reduces accident rates unless craftsmen and management take positive actions to integrated these rules into their everybody activities by implementation a safety management program safety management is an road aimed at removing or minimizing the forces which cause losses through injured workers, damaged equipment and facilities.
In Nigeria, the federal ministry of work promise all rules and regulations guiding construction in the country. The different individual commissioners of works in different make up states within the federation also assist in regulation of principles and laws guiding constructional projects in the state.
In most developing countries, including Nigerian safety consideration in construction project delivery is not given a priority, and employment of safety measured during building construction is considered a burden (Mbuya and Lema 2002). The construction industry in Nigerian is one of the fastest growing and largest sectors in the national economy. It is also one of the highest contributing sectors to the national gross domestic product (GDP) next to agriculture. However occupational safety and health in the construction industry in Nigerians is at the very basic level.
It lacks all the three fronts of engineering reduction and enforcement (Three E’s) of safety. Safety concerns have been raised, of late and earnest efforts are being made to promote safety in the Nigerian construction industry. The industry, as such needs to assess the safety situation and accordingly plan and implementing safe construction in Nigeria.
Currently, there is a genuine set of data on safety at construction site in Nigeria. Apparently, there are no systematic and organized studies conducted specifically on the safety aspects of the construction industry in Nigeria.
This research study was aimed into assess the existing safety management practices and perception in the Nigerian construction industry. The assessment was useful in providing information in terms of current safety practices administered in Nigeria. Meanwhile the perceptions was useful in finding out what are the main reasons and whether the regulator and construction companies have different perceptions in identifying problems related to safety management.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
There is deficiency in the application of safety management in most of the building construction site in Nigeria. Due to this professional negligence and ignorance, along most construction companies own, brought about the crucial analysis of safety management in our indigenous construction firms to correct the problem of failure, to apply safety precaution and design stage.
Construction industry in Nigeria has a lot of risk and loss of workers life over the years, so many accidents and injury prone cases are as well recorded every year. To prevent this trend from reoccurring, safety management system will have to be adopted by all employers, construction experts, supervisor, engineers and all working crews to control this rising incidence from always repeating itself. Prevention they say is better than cure, it will be of interest for government to continue to remind the issue of safety to all construction company to adopt this in their construction programme. For individual (private) constructions firms and government owned and other foreign expatriated within the industry to succeed in this fight for poor implementation of safety, policy, principles, programme, rules, regulations and legislation will have to be cherished and welcome as a source of remedy to the problem in question.
To reduce death, injury and stress of workers during construction process, adequate training should be given to the workers for proper orientation of work. For instance, building construction sites are made up of so much plant and machinery and operators of this type of equipment should be fully trained and that also is applicable for those workers or drivers who operates vehicles like tippers, tankers (diesel or fuel) cars both on and off with included are those mechanical equipment like mechanical diggers, cranes, fork lift, truck, caterpillars and so on should all be exposed to practical knowledge for more acquisition of skills.
Despite all efforts put in-place, why does building construction projects collapse? This question is paramount because each time a structure or building fails or collapse, so many lives are lost at a result of the problem. There are some number factors causing this problem and they are professional negligence, poor supervision of construction projects, poor quality material and Workmanship, selfishness from most contractors to maximize profit and inadequate safety management procedures are all involved. Questionnaire, interviews and participants observations are designed to examine the problem of safety management in building construction industry.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
This study is to examine critical investigate safety practice among construction based companies using Dantata & Sawoe Construction Company Ltd, Kano State as a case study. With the aim of discovering all the obstacles or hindrance to effective safety management in the construction industry.Specifically, the objectives of the study are as follows:
Ascertain the extent at which workers/contractors comply with safety management skills in the construction industry.
Determine the attitude of workers/contractors towards safety management.
Identify the problems affecting the implementation of safety management in the construction industry.
Identify the strategies for promoting effective safety management in the construction industry.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were formulated to guide the study based on the research objectives;
To what extent does workers/contractors comply with safety management skills in the construction industry?
What is the attitude of workers/contractors towards safety management?
What are the problems affecting the implementation of safety management in the construction industry?
What are the strategies for promoting effective safety management in the construction industry?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0: There is no effective safety management practices in the construction industry.
Ha: There is effective safety management practices in the construction industry.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research would be great significance to construction industry as an organization and the nation at large, in order to improve their employee’s health and safety standards and as such reduce their cost. Also recommendation would be made on ways in which the employers, government, trade union could jointly make effort to promote health and safety in thereby acting as a catalyst to influence other industries and generally improving the whole nation if this research is successfully carried out.
The study would further assist in showing how the various acts enacted are useful and should be implemented. If the study is accepted and appreciated, it could be significance to the nation as well. Empirically, the study will contribute to the general body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to both scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study borders on appraising safety practice among construction based companies in Kano state. The study will further ascertain the extent at which workers/contractors comply with management skills in the construction industry, determine the attitude of workers/contractors towards safety management, identify the problems affecting the implementation of safety management in the construction site, and identify the strategies promoting effective safety management in the construction industry. The respondents for this study will be obtained from Dantata & Sawoe Construction Company Ltd, Kano State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study's completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents' interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition Of Terms.
Safety: This is a state of being safe and protected against.
Management: It is the discipline of planning co-coordinating, organizing, controlling, leading, forecasting, securing and managing resources to being about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.
Construction: according to Wikipedia’s encyclopedia construction is designed as a process of assembling of infrastructure and consist of building up of several activities into final project.
Project: it is a temporary endeavor having a defined beginning and end which is an undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives.
Construction Management: Management of the site structural engineer: this is a professional in the field of civil engineering who speechlessness on structural and its detailing.
Site: This is the location or place where the building structure and all its construction takes place programme.