Bio-Chemistry | PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT ...

PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM PLANT (SCENT LEAF)

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ABSTRACT

Since ages, many plants have been used for preservative and medicinal purposes due to the presence of secondary metabolites referred as Phytochemicals. Phytochemicals are biologically active plant compounds having disease hampering capabilities and preservative action. The genus Ocimumcontains more than 200 species of herbs and shrubs which have been shown to have medicinal properties and also are used as a culinary herb, preservative and flavoring agents. In this study chloroform extracts from the leaves of Ocimumgratissimum was investigated for their phytochemical constituent (both quantitative and qualitative) and antioxidant activity. GCMS analysis was carried out to ascertain the specific amount and specific active component present in the leaf sample. The extract was screened for the presence of phenols, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, and Saponins. The test results were positive for all the phytochemicals,saponin and phytosterols which were absent qualitativelyThe antioxidant activity was measured by the ferric reducing power assay, estimation of total flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols. The GC-MS analysis of the leaf sample suggested the presence ofthymol, alpha-carophyllene, phenol etc. The present investigation suggests that the phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties can be further studied for its application in health and in food industries. In addition, this plant can be used as a source of novel drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

  • LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1OcimumGratissimum

1.2 Phytochemical

1.3 Classes of phytochemicals

1.3.1 Alkaloids

1.3.2 Flavonoids

1.3.3 Saponin

1.3.4  Tannin

1.3.5  Terpenes

1.3.6 Phenolics

1.4     Mechanism of action of phytochemicals

1.4.1 Anti- oxidant

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     MATERIALS AND METHOD

2.1     Plant material collection and identification

2.2     Apparatus used

2.3     Chemicals and reagents

2.4     Preparation of plant extract

2.5     Qualitative phytochemical screening

2.5.1  Test for Alkaloids(Wagner’s test)

2.5.2  Test for Saponin (Froth test)

2.5.3  Test for Tannin

2.5.4  Test for Flavonoids

2.5.5  Test for Phytosterols

2.5.6  Test for Phenols

2.6     Quantitative analysis and Anti-oxidant activity

of O.gratissimum

2.6.1  Estimation of total flavonoids

2.6.1.1 Preparation of sample

2.6.1.2Preparation of quercetinstandard calibration curve

2.6.2  Determination of tannins concentration

2.6.2.1Preparation of sample

2.6.2.2Preparation of tannic acid standard calibration curve

2.6.3  Determination of total Phenol content

2.6.3.1Preparation of sample

2.6.3.2Preparation of gallic acid standard

2.6.4 Determination of Saponin concentration

2.6.5 Determination of Alkaloid concentration

2.6.6  Ferric Reducing Power Assay

2.8     Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESULTS                                                

3.1     Qualitative phytochemical screening of O.gratissimum 

3.2     Quantitative/anti-oxidant analysis of O. Gratissimum  

3.2.1  Total flavonoid content

3.2.2  Total tannin content

3.2.3  Total Phenol content

3.2.4  Total saponin content

3.2.5  Total alkaloid content

3.1.3  Reducing power assay

3.2     GC-MS analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Discussion, conclusion and recommendation

4.1     Discussion

4.2     Conclusion

4.3     Recommendation

REFERENCES                                                                     

APPENDIX.

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