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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

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ABSTRACT 
Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs. Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.  
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page------------------------- i
Certification-----------------ii
Dedication------------------------.iii
Acknowledgement-------------------.iv
Abstract--------------------------v
Table of Content--------------------vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction -------------------1
1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant---------.4
1.3 Research aim and objectives---------.7
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Definition of Inflammation---------8
2.1 Characteristics of Inflammation------.8
2.2 Classes of Inflammation----------9
2.3 Types of Inflammation-----------.10
2.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation----13
2.4.0 Properties of Mediators----------16
2.4.1 Histamine---------------- 18
2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy tryptamine)---- 21
2.4.3 Cytokines-------------------- 24
2.4.4 Arachidonic acid --------------- 30
2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)------ 34
2.4.6 Free Radicals--------------.36
2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)------------ 37
2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals------. 40
2.4.7.0 Complement system----------. 41
2.4.7.1 The clotting system/Coagulation system. 45
2.4.7.2 The Kinin System-----------. 48
2.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system--------- 50
2.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory agents--------53
2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) 53
2.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS----.55
2.5.2 Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs----58
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1 Materials------------------ 60
3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used-------- 60
3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents------61
3.1.3 Animals--------------------62
3.2 Methodology------------------.63
3.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials--63
3.2.2 Extraction-------------------.63
3.3 Fractionation------------------ 64
3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography---------.64
3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups in the extract-----------------. 65
3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical analysis--------------------.65
3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Extract-----------------.66
3.5 Thin Layer Chromatography---------- 71
3.6 Anti-inflammatory activity test. -------- 72
CHAPTER FOUR
Result-----------------------.75
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion--------------------- 79
Conclusion--------------------- 81
References---------------------.82
Appendixes------------------87

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