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EFFECTIVE USE OF A TROPICAL HOP NAMED BITTER LEAF [VERNONIA AMYGDALINA] EXTRACT AS A MEANSOF EXTENDING THE SHELF – LIFE OFLOCALLYBREWED MILLET BEER

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EFFECTIVE  USE  OF  A TROPICAL  HOP NAMED BITTER LEAF [VERNONIA  AMYGDALINA]  EXTRACT  AS  A MEANSOF  EXTENDING THE  SHELF – LIFE  OFLOCALLYBREWED MILLET BEER

ABSRACT                                                                                                   

This  local  beer is  brewed  from  a   cereal  grain  called  millet,and  it  is  brewed  with bitter  leave  extract  acting  as  hop  substitute  to  see  if  it  can  increase  the  shelf – life of this  beer.The  production  process  include  malting, mashing, fermentation, and maturation.The microorganisms  associated  with  fermentation  include  Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and  Saccharomyces  Charelienia.These  yeast  hasten  fermentation  by converting  the  sugar  in  the  beer  to  alcohol. Kunu  is  an  indigenous  alcoholic beverages  that  is  traditionally  brewed  with out hops,and  because  of  this  it  has  a shot shelf  life  as  compared  with  that brewed  with  the  tropical  hops.There   is  a significant [P≥ 0.05] difference  in  chemical  properties of millet  with  hops  and without  hops.Millet  with  hops  is  the  best  with  alcoholic  content  of  0.325 ± 0.004, total  acidity  of 0.645 ± 0.011(% lactic  acid),fixed  acidity  of  0.041± 0.002, specific gravity of 1.199±0.015 and  pH  of  4.03± 0.02.But  without  hops  we  have  an  alcoholic content  of  0.316± 0.005, total  acidity(lactic  acid) of  0.427± 0.002, fixed  acidity  of 0.034± 0.005,specific  gravity  of  1.049± 0.007, and  pH  of  3.32±0.02.From  the  result the beer without  hops  is  the  lowest  in  acceptance  of  chemical  properties  so  it  is advisable  that  the local millet  beer  be  brewed  with  the tropical  hops (Vernonia Amygdalina). 

                                                 

TABLE   OF  CONTENT                          

Title page-----------------------------------------------------------------                                        

Certification  page--------------------------------------------------------                                      

Dedication------------------------------------------------------------------                                     

Acknowledgement---------------------------------------------------------                                     

Abstract--------------------------------------------------------------------                                      

Table  of  content-------------------------------------------------------                                          

List  of  tables-----------------------------------------------------------                                          

List  of   figure---------------------------------------------------------                                                                                                                                            

                       CHAPTER  ONE                                                                                                                                                                           

1.0   Introduction-------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

1.1  Aim  of  study / Project------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                                 CHAPTER   TWO                                                             

2.0   Literature  Review-----------------------------------------------------------------------       

2.1  General  Description of  Cereal Crops-------------------------------------------------        

2.2   Origin  of  Millet  and  its  distribution------------------------------------------------       

2.2.1   Botanical [Scientific  classification]-------------------------------------------------      

2.2.2    Diseases  and  Pest  of   Pearl  Millets----------------------------------------------

2.2.3    Grain  Composition  and  Nutritive  value-----------------------------------------        

2.2.4   Other  Uses  of   Pearl   Millet-------------------------------------------------------

2.3  Origin  and  Distribution   of  Sorghum------------------------------------------------        

2.3.1   Botanical[Scientific Classification]-------------------------------------------------

2.3.2   Grain  Composition  of   Sorghum---------------------------------------------------        

2.3.3   Other  Uses  of   Sorghum------------------------------------------------------------        

2.4      Hops-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------       

2.4.1   Other   Uses   of   Hops---------------------------------------------------------------                                                                                                  

2.5     Bitter leaves  Juice  and  its  role-----------------------------------------------------        

2.5.1  Botanic  Classification  of   Bitter leaves--------------------------------------------       

2.5.2  Composition  of   Bitter leaves--------------------------------------------------------       

2.6     Yeast--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

2.6.1  Origin  and  Distribution  of  Yeast--------------------------------------------------        

2.6.2   Composition   of   Yeast--------------------------------------------------------------        

2.6.3   How  Yeast  is  Prepared--------------------------------------------------------------       

2.7     Water-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.8      Clarifying   agent-----------------------------------------------------------------------       

2.9      Adjuncts---------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

2.10    Biochemistry  of   brewing   Process------------------------------------------------        

2.10.1  Biochemistry  of  Malting------------------------------------------------------------       

2.10.2  Biochemistry  of  Boiling------------------------------------------------------------

2.10.3  Biochemistry  of  Mashing-----------------------------------------------------------

2.10.4  Biochemistry  of  Souring------------------------------------------------------------

2.10.5  Biochemistry  of  Fermentation-----------------------------------------------------        

2.11     Straining--------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

2.12    Properties   of   Beer-------------------------------------------------------------------       

2.12.1  Processes  Involved  in  Beer  Production-----------------------------------------        

2.12.2  Lagering--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.12.3  Types  of   Beer------------------------------------------------------------------------      

2.13 Preparation  of   Local  Beer------------------------------------------------------------

2.13.1   Factors Affecting  both  Local  and Modern Beer------------------------------

2.13.2   Alcoholic  Content  of   Beer-------------------------------------------------------

2.13.3   Differences  Between  Local  and Modern Beer---------------------------------         

2.14      Packaging  and  Distribution--------------------------------------------------------

2.14.1   Spoilage--------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

2.15      Importance  of  fermented Alcoholic Beverages---------------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                                       CHAPTER   THREE                                                                                 

3.0  Materials  and  methods -----------------------------------------------------------------       

3.0.1   Materials --------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

3.0.1.1 Chemicals  and  Reagents -----------------------------------------------------------        

3.0.1.2 Glass  wares  and  equipments ------------------------------------------------------       

3.1 Preparation  of  samples  -----------------------------------------------------------------       

3.1.1 Methods ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

3.1.1.1 Ingredients -----------------------------------------------------------------------------      

3.1.2  Method used to prepared local millet beer -----------------------------------------        

3.1.2.1  Method used to prepared aqueous extract of  bitter leaf -----------------------

3.1.3  Method  of  chemical  analysis -------------------------------------------------------  

3.1.4  Total  acidity ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1.5  Fixed  acidity ---------------------------------------------------------------------------       

3.1.6 Volatile  acidity--------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.2  pH   determination------------------------------------------------------------------------       

3.3 Specific  gravity ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.4  Determination  of  Alcohol  content ---------------------------------------------------

3.5  Total  dissolved  solid (TDS).-----------------------------------------------------------

3.6  Total  suspended  solid (TSS).----------------------------------------------------------

3.7   Microbial Count  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.7.1  Procedure  for  culturing in the  plate.-----------------------------------------------

3.7.2  Procedure for identification  of  the  organisms -----------------------------------                                                                                                                                                                                           CHAPTER    FOUR                                                                                                           

4.0  Results--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

4.1


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