The study assessed the farmers perception of the effect of oil spillage on agricultural land of farmers in Udu Local Government of Delta State. The specific objectives of the work are to: Identify causes of oil spillage in the area and ascertain farmers’ perceived problem of oil spillage on their environment and agricultural activities, among others. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 60 contact farmers for the study. Data were collected by the use of questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using, frequency distribution, percentages mean and likert type technique. The major finding of the research shows that a larger proportion of the people in the study area are engaged in crop production fishing and trading. It was equally discovered that often oil spill, through ocean surge and tidal flows, and spill from corroded pipelines are serious environmental problems plaguing the area which have led to impoverishment of the people. Base on the findings, it was recommended the government and the various agencies connected with oil production should establish a direct efficient communication channel for the public to report oil spill incidents to relevant authorities for urgent response and attention, among others.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page i Certification ii Dedication iii Acknowledgement iv Abstract v Table of content vi List of tables viii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study 1 1.2 Statement of problem 3 1.3 Objective of the study 5 1.4 Justification of the study 5 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 An over view of oil spillage in Nigeria 8 2.2 The effect of crude oil spillage 13 2.3 Causes of oil spillage 16 2.4 Nigeria economy and the petroleum industry 18 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Area of study 29 3.2 Sampling procedure 30 3.3 Instrument of data collection 30 3.4 Method of data analysis 30 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Socio-economics characteristics of farmers 33 4.2 Agricultural and related activities 39 4.3 Causes of oil spillage 42 4.4 Effects of oil spillage on environment and Agricultural activities 43 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Summary of findings 45 5.2 Recommendations 46 References 48 Appendix 51 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Age distribution of farmers. 33 Table 2 Distribution of respondents according to marital status 35 Table 4 Distribution of farmers household size 35 Table 5 Educational status of farmers 36 Table 6 Sex distribution of respondents 37 Table 7 Farming experience of farmers 38 Table 8 Distribution of farmers Years of farming Table 9 Agricultural and related activities 39 Table 10 Estimate size of respondents’ farmland 40 Table 11 Distribution of respondents according to Agricultural and related enterprise 41 Table 12 Farmers’ response on causes of oil spillage.
1.2 Statement of the Problem. Whenever there is an oil spill on agricultural and natural land (hard and water) spreading immediately takes place. The gaseous and liquid components evaporate, some get dissolved in water and even oxidized and some undergo changes and eventually sink to the bottom by gravitational action. The soil is then contaminated with grass effect upon the terrestrial life. As the evaporation of the volatile lower molecular weight component affect aerial life, so that dissolution of the less volatile component with the resultant effect on aquatic life (atlas 2001). Once oil is released on water, the process of spreading takes place immediately the process stand to be the most significant. Some forces that influence the lateral spreading of oil even on calm water include; (a) Gravitation force, which brings about decreasing film thickness (b) Surface tension and inertia force, the force of gravity is found to be proportional to the film thickness. The causes of oil spillage are: Leakage from oil pipelines and flow lines, oil tank over flow, blow out of oil wells, sabotage by agencies, pipeline Vandalization, Lack of maintenance of oil pipelines. The research questions that now arise are: What cause(s) oil spillage on farmlands? How do farmers perceive or view oil spillage on their lands? Do they see it as having a disastrous effect on the agro-ecology? Is soil deterioration caused by oil spill attributable to unemployment and improper living condition? What are the agricultural or other related activities oil spillage could have effect on? 1.3 Objective of the study The broad objective of the study is to examine the effects of oil spillage and natural environment of farmers in the study are. - The specific Objectives are:
Describe the socio economic characteristics of farmers in the study area.
Identify causes of oil spillage in the study area
To ascertain farmer’s perceived effects of oil spillage on environment and agricultural activities.
1.4 Justification of the study This study has attempted to assess and evaluate the significance of the impacts generated by oil spill incidents. A thorough environmental impact assessment prior to oil exploitation and exploration in the rich regions. To stress the establishing of regional spill respond centre along coast line or in oil producing area and use the data collected and measures, that will help in managing oil spill problem in Nigeria and the study area: It helps to assure that communities can live safely with pipelines, by developing the technologies that detect or monitor the main causes of pipelines failures, developing a standard for the content and distribution of public education programmes of operators to enhance analysis of the risks that pipeline pose to the people and environment through information system improvements. Enhancing readiness of both pipeline operators and local communities to recognize and mount effective and timely responses to pipeline accidents. To know the development measures and regulatory standards for leak detection technology and of related best practices and to study the preventive measures in general which is better than cure. This study will be useful for every individual, organization and those communities that are liable to frequent oil spill and other related environmental pollution posed by oil spills to the natural environment, and will help greatly in alleviating the problem. Other disciplines that may find this study useful or that will use the study are; The researchers, Environmentalist, Agriculturalist, fertilizer institutions, the oil producing states, the communities prone to frequent oil spill and every one aspiring to build a wealth of knowledge of environmental consequences ‘or either for examination purpose or other professional need.