A study was carried out in the Rubber growing soils of Utagba-ogbe in Ndokwa-West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. The aim was to characterize the soil in respect of their morphological, physical and chemical properties. Six mapping units were mapped out, and 4 profile pits dug in each of them in order to characterize the soils. Soil samples were also collected from the soil profile horizons and analyzed for their particle size distribution and chemical properties. The chemical properties evaluated were the soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, exchange acidity and cation exchange capacity. The morphological properties were also examined and described. These include soil colour, mottle, texture, structure, consistence and horizon boundary. Results of the study showed that the soils irrespective of pedons were deep, non-mottled with varied textures. The structure ranged angular blocky, to sub–angular blocky. The consistence ranged from friable, slight plastic to very plastic in the subsoil horizons. The boundary descriptions were clear, smooth, diffuse, and wavy boundary. The physical characteristics showed that the soils were sandy loam at the surface to sandy clay loam and clay loam in the sub-soil horizons. The soils were generally acidic 5.5 – 6.5, high in organic matter content, total nitrogen, but low to moderate in phosphorus, basic cations, CEC and base saturation. The results showed that the rubber growing soils were moderate in fertility. In order to sustain rubber production for a long time, regular fertilization and liming should be carried out to maintain rubber production in the soil.
TABLE OF CONTENT Cover page i Certification ii Dedication iii Acknowledgment iv Table of Content v Abstract vi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study 1 1.2 The objective of the study 3
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Origins and Distributions of Rubber 4 2.2 Varieties of Rubber 4 2.3 Uses of Rubber 5 2.4 Climatic Requirement 5 2.5 Soil Requirements 6 2.6 Agronomic Practices 7 2.7 Propagation Methods 8 2.8 Maintenances of Rubber 9 2.8.1 Weeding 9 2.8.2 Establishment and maintenances of Ground Cover 9 2.8.3 Watering/irrigation 10 2.8.4 Harvesting and Processing of Rubber 10 2.8.5 Rubber Tapping System 11 2.8.6 Processing of Rubber 12 2.8.7 Pests and Diseases of Rubber 12
CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Description of the Study Area 14 3.2 Field Study/Sample Collections 15 3.3 Laboratory Methods 16 3.4 Analytical Procedures 17 3.4.1 Particles size distribution 17 3.4.2 Soil pH (Electrometric Method) 19 3.4.3 Soil Organic Matter (Walkley Black Wet Oxidation Method) 19 3.4.4 Total Nitrogen (Kjeldahl Procedure) 20 3.4.5 Available Phosphorus 21 3.4.6 Exchangeable Bases 21 3.4.7 Exchange Acidity 22 3.4.8 Cation Exchange Capacity 22 3.4.9 Percentage Base Saturation 22 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Morphological Properties 23 4.2 Particles Size Distribution 24 4.3 Chemical Properties 30
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Summary 40 5.2 Conclusion 41 5.3 Recommendation 41 References 42
The Objective of the Study The objective of the study include:
The characterize the soil in relation to their morphological, physical and chemical properties.