Literally guidance is as old as man, all through the ages human being have for one reason considered to have known how to render such a service.
According to Pearson (1908), the term vocational guidance should be referred to the process of assisting people to choose a vocation for attainment of efficiency and success. The definition was how ever amplified in 1924 by the National vocational Guidance Association (NVGA) whose version states that vocational guidance is the giving of information, experience and advance in regards to choosing an occupation, preparing for it and entering into it and progressing in it.
Vocational guidance in Nigeria stated formally in 1959 at saint Theresa’s College oke-Ado in Ibandan by some reverenced sister out of sympathy and concern for the product of their school (Iwuama 1991). They felt that this secondary school leavers would have problem in seeking for admission for further studies, looking for employment in the society after leaving school. They invited resource person from various fields of work. They (resource person) then advised the sister on how to place sixty of their out going students of that year on various jobs. Through vocational guidance, there are innate aptitudes and interest for a job that are needed to be known before picking up a job. Supper (1857) pointed out that it is one process of helping a person to develop and accept an integrated picture of himself and his role in the world of work, to test this concept into reality with satisfaction to himself and benefits to the society. Danga (1986), also supported this simply by indicating that vocational guidance in school is concerned with assisting students to make realistic and appropriate vocational decision. Super and crities (1962) defined vocational guidance as the process of helping the individual to ascertain, accept and understand and apply the relevant facts about the world which are ascertained through exploratory activities.
Vocational guidance assumes that some factors influence the student choice of career. As Napier (1972) comments, vocational guidance is the process by which all the various factors affecting individual occupational choice are sorted out, weighted and brought in focus and by which the young person helped to make his own potentials for them.
Since the aim and objective of this study is to sing out the extent of the impact of vocational guidance on career choice of secondary school students, we can not over look the various authors Firstly, supper (1961) and Nuloye (1990), pointed out that lovers the sequence of positions or jobs or occupation in the lives of individuals. Denga (1986) also defined the world career as the total series of roles and work experience a person occupies through out his life time. Bear and Racber (1964) supported Denga that career is the total problem of jobs held during a worker’s lifetime. This means that when we talk about ones career, we mean the totality of varied and accumulated experience preceding an individual engagement in specific job or occupation. Achebe (1983) and Ipaya (1986) stated that career is a general work description that often includes, vocation, profession and even occupation. Vocational guidance aid choice. One of the crucial tasks of the Nigeria guidance counselors in to positively influence the vocational behavour of different clients. According to Wrenn (1963) vocation means commitment, a sense of purpose for the total activity of ones life and the career choice is part of this larger vocational purpose for the total activity of ones life and the career choice is part of this larger vocational purpose. There has been growing interest in the interrelationship between occupational aspiration and career choice. Bojuwoye (1086) agrees that many Nigeria students find it difficult to choose subject combination required for different occupations. Consequently, he submits that teachers in school need the services offered in vocational guidance to enable them collect analysis, interpret and present to students.
Vocational guidance in school will also help parents have a better perspective about childr3en in relation to career and employment forces in locality. One of the objectives of vocational guidance is to assist students develop and execute career plans which may help them in achieving their career goal. Taking appropriate course at the secondary level to qualify them for particular occupation.
Majority of the students on leaving secondary school may not have had the opportunity of vocational guidance and this may affect their choice of career. The study is geared towards investigating the extent of the impact of vocational guidance on career choice of secondary school students and effect vocational guidance will help in solving unemployment problem in Nigeria.
Statement if the problem
The need for vocational guidance for career choice among secondary school leavers, inability of student career choice decision among students, incompetent of vocational guidance in school and negative influence of vocational guidance students
Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study is identify the extent to which vocational guidance impacts on the career choice of secondary school students specifically the study sought: I. To find out the extent to which vocational guidance provides adequate career choice among school leavers. II. To find out the extent to which students rely on vocational guidance of their choice of career. III. To find out the extent to which vocational guidance can reduce the level of unemployment among school leaver. IV. To find out the extent to which students who had vocational guidance experience choose better career. V. To find out the extent to which vocational guidance influence career choice among school leaver.
Significance of the Study
The study owes the significance to three groups of people. Firstly, the secondary school student who are about to leave the school, majority of them after the junior secondary certificate leave the school to find a vocation. The SS III students are made to know their aptitudes, interest and capability before they can pick up career. Secondary, the economy of Nigeria will improve compared to developed countries like united state of America (USA) where before one takes a job, one must have had the previous knowledge of what is expected of him in that job. Thus it will help to minimize the rate of unemployment, which Nigeria is presently facing. Finally, it will help vocational guidance counselors to acquire insight into the several factors that influence career decision so that they can incorporate them into their vocational counseling.
Delimitation of the study
This study was limited to identify the extent of the impact of vocational guidance on career choice of secondary school students in Enugu North Local Government Area.
The study was guided by the following research question: 1. To what extent does vocational guidance lead to adequate career choice among school leaver? 2. To what extent do student rely on the vocational guidance for their career choice? 3. To what extent can vocational guidance reduce the level of unemployment among school leaver? 4. To what extent can vocational guidance experience help student to choose better career? 5. To what extent does vocational guidance influence career choice?
H0: Vocational guidance does not enhance students’ career choices.
H1: Vocational guidance enhances students’ career choices.