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ASSESSMENT OF THE DETERMINANTS OF THE USE OF BOLT TRANSPORT SERVICE FOR SOCIAL/RECREATIONAL TRIPS AMONG STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE DETERMINANTS  OF THE USE OF BOLT TRANSPORT SERVICE FOR SOCIAL/RECREATIONAL TRIPS AMONG STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The rapid advancement of mobile and communication technology has presented travellers with novel transit options. Ridesourcing firms are using internet-based platforms to provide electronic hailing services in several locations globally (Wang & Yang, 2019). Companies such as Uber, Opay, Bolt, Enviable, among others, are revolutionising the transportation business, particularly the traditional taxi sector, by facilitating real-time connections between clients and drivers. According to Meyer and Shaheen (2017), the emergence of new marketplaces has the potential to supplant conventional transport methods and bring about a transformative shift in intra-city travel patterns.

Ridesourcing exemplifies revolutionary trends that are propelling urban mobility towards the sharing economy (Tarabay & Abou – Zeid, 2019). The term "sharing economy" pertains to an internet-based platform that facilitates the efficient and effective interaction between people or small companies acting as buyers and sellers. It may also be described as a market model that permits the sharing of access to products and services. Ridesourcing firms facilitate the connection between passenger demand and driver supply by providing a platform or acting as an intermediary. According to Wang and Yang (2019), passengers use an e-hailing mobile application to input their travel request data, such as trip origin, destination, departure time, and service type. Drivers who are associated with the platform may either navigate the city or remain stationed at designated areas while awaiting potential customers. The web platform facilitates a seamless pairing of passengers and drivers via the use of matching and order dispatching algorithms. The platform imposes a fee on customers for their transportation services and compensates drivers via wages and/or bonuses. The disparity between the price and the pay mostly stems from the deduction of a commission by the platform. This fee often ranges from 15% to 30%, dependent upon factors such as time, area, and firm. Following each journey, passengers have the opportunity to evaluate the drivers who rendered the transportation service, hence facilitating the quantification of the service quality delivered by the associated drivers.

The business model employed by Uber has been emulated by various ridesourcing companies across different cities and countries. For instance, Opay introduced Otrike (a tricycle commonly referred to as 'Keke') in the Enugu metropolis in 2018, which subsequently led to a transformation of the transport system in other cities like Umuahia, where an impressive ridesourcing transport application was implemented. The residents, particularly the students of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike (MOUAU) in Umuahia Metropolis, now have the option of selecting ridesourcing services for their various journeys or using other commercially accessible cars inside the Metropolis. Moreover, the implementation of ridesourcing services in urban areas was accompanied by a strategic approach aimed at increasing market share. The company's provision of discounted rates proved to be very appealing to a significant number of technologically proficient young individuals, leading to their widespread adoption of this new transportation technology for diverse travel needs. In the absence of ridesourcing services in the Lagos metropolitan, an unregulated system of 'Keke' drivers was prevalent. These drivers were known for their dangerous driving behaviour, which led to a significant number of accidents causing varying degrees of injury to both the drivers and passengers. Certain drivers also display discourteous conduct towards their passengers, resulting in frequent instances of verbal or physical altercations involving either the drivers themselves or the passengers. On the other hand, drivers who have registered with the ridesourcing firm undergo training in many areas including as communication skills, complaint handling tactics, map reading, adherence to driving restrictions, avoidance of excessive speeding, and effective time management. Consequently, these training sessions contribute to the enhancement of their respectful behaviours.According to Hu (2019), In Nigeria, Transport Network Companies (TNCs) such as Uber, Bolt, Opay, and Enviable use smartphone applications equipped with GPS technology. These applications allow users to input their trip origin and destination, after which the platform promptly connects the passenger with an available driver in real-time. The software provides real-time information on the estimated waiting time, allowing passengers to conveniently monitor the current whereabouts of their assigned driver. Once the driver reaches the passenger's location, they engage with the platform by clicking to confirm their arrival and proceed towards the designated destination. Both the driver and the passenger have the ability to track their progress using a shared platform. Upon reaching the destination, the driver selects the "arrived" option on the platform, which then prompts the passenger to proceed with making the necessary payment. Following the completion of the payment process, passengers are requested to provide a review about their experience with the platform and evaluate the conduct of the driver. This novel technology garnered significant interest among young adults who are considered to be innovators and early adopters. Additionally, the use of a penetration pricing plan proved to be essential in persuading individuals to download the programme and utilise its features. The early success of the application may be linked to the effective implementation of a strategic pricing plan, as well as the unique characteristics of the transport system in Lagos Metropolis. The government's implementation of a ban on motorcycle riders, often referred to as 'Okada', inside the city resulted in the introduction of tricycles and an increased number of yellow taxis to supplement the services provided by commercial buses. In contrast, commercial buses adhere to a strict protocol of only collecting and discharging passengers at specified bus stops. Yellow cabs, on the other hand, are stationed at defined areas and await passengers, although some drivers may traverse the city in search of those who want to hail their services. The tricycles exhibit a lack of coordination and regulation in their movement, as they engage in the practise of picking up and dropping off passengers. However, their appeal to a significant portion of the population in the metropolis stems from their ability to transport individuals to locations that are distant from bus stops, as well as their comparatively lower fares in comparison to yellow cabs. Therefore, the researcher sought to assess the determinants  of the use of Bolt transport service for Social/Recreational Trips among students in University of lagos.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Ridesourcing services are utilised for a range of trip purposes, including work-related, educational, social/recreational, medical, and personal business trips. However, scholarly investigations have consistently indicated that ridesourcing services are predominantly employed for social/recreational trips (Tarabay & Abou-Zeid, 2019; Mahmoudifard et al., 2017; Rayle et al., 2016). Furthermore, these services tend to attract a demographic of young, well-educated passengers (Tarabay & AbouZeid, 2019; Dias et al., 2017; Rayle et al., 2016). Despite extensive research on ridesourcing in various locations such as San Francisco, New York, Chicago, Austin, Asia, and the Middle East, there is a lack of quantified evidence regarding the factors influencing the use of ridesourcing services by residents and students in Lagos metropolis, where this service was recently introduced (Deka & Fei, 2019; Rayle et al., 2016; AtkinsonPalombo et al., 2019; McKenzie & Baez, 2016; Marten, 2015; Mahmoudifard et al., 2017; Yu & Peng, 2019; Schechter & Hanson, 2017; Tarabay & Abou-Zeid, 2019).  The study will bridge the gap in the literature, and also tries to provide insights on the assessment of  the determinants  of the use of Bolt transport service for Social/Recreational Trips among students in University of lagos.

1.3       Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is to assess the determinants  of the use of Bolt transport service for Social/Recreational Trips among students in University of lagos.

i.          Assess the level of awareness of Bolt  transport service among students in University of Lagos.

ii.        Find out the factors considered for choosing Bolt as a mode of transport for Social/Recreational Trips among  students  in University of Lagos.

iii.      Investigate the challenges in the use of Bolt transport service for Social/ Recreational Trips among students in University of lagos.

1.3 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

i.          What is the level of awareness of Bolt  transport service among students  in University of Lagos?

ii.        What are the factors considered for choosing Bolt as a mode of transport  for Social/Recreational Trips among  students  in University of Lagos?

iii.      What are the challenges in the use of Bolt transport service for Social/Recreational Trips among students in University of lagos?

1.4 Significance of the study

The finding of the study will be significant as it has become a prime example of the gig economy at work. Bolts advantages include door-to-door convenience, safety, and reliable quality.

The findings of the study is significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6       Scope of the study

The study focuses on the determinants of the use of Bolt transport service for Social/Recreational Trips among students in University of lagos. Hence, the study will assess the level of awareness of Bolt  transport service among students  in University of Lagos, find out the factors considered for choosing Bolt as a mode of transport  for Social/Recreational Trips among  students  in University of Lagos and investigate the challenges in the use of Bolt transport service for Social/Recreational Trips among students in University of lagos. The study is therefore delimited to students in University of Lagos.

1.7       Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced

1.8       Definition of terms

Bolt transport services: these are services provided by drivers under a contract (with you) for the carriage of passengers

Students: a person who is studying at a university or other place of higher education.

Social\recreational trips: those activities that have socialization as a primary purpose



This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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