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AN EXAMINATION OF INSURGENCY AND IT'S IMPACT ON INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT IN NIGERIA

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AN EXAMINATION OF INSURGENCY AND IT'S IMPACT ON INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT IN NIGERIA


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

Globally, conflicts have broken out often throughout human history as states have fought to maintain their independence and provide for their inhabitants. As a result of internal threats from non-state actors, the post-cold war security environment has seen a change in the spectrum of hostilities towards intra-State warfare. The post-cold war conflicts, which include terrorism, insurgency, banditry, and cyber warfare, characterize the 'constantly changing' nature of warfare to which Ugwu & Eme (2019) alludes.

By definition, Adebisi, Oyedeji, & Azeez (2020) averred an insurgency to be  a violent revolt against legitimate government. More so, the definition of insurgency by Nneka (2015) suggests that any attempt to rise up against a constituted power is unacceptable. According to the US Department of Defence (2017), it is an uprising and armed, ideologically motivated attempt to remove an established government from power of which  the goal is to acquire command of the organisation and its assets. On the other hand, Ebi (2018) assert that rebels might advocate for a nationalist cause through violence. Unlike classical insurgencies, which often sought to expel foreign invaders from a country or fill a power vacuum, modern insurgencies attempt to overturn an existing system, cause mayhem and disrupt development of the territory .

Significantly, the phenomenon of insurgency and subsequent human displacement has emerged as a widespread worldwide crisis, characterized by profound and extensive implications that are more effectively conceptualized than personally endured. Kusa & Salihu (2020) mentioned that the issue at hand significantly influences the political, social, and economic aspects of the lives of the affected individuals, thereby presenting a substantial challenge to the achievement of sustainable human development in the impacted countries and places. The issue of human displacement in several countries, including the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Myanmar (where the Rohingyas are affected), has garnered significant international attention, including at the United Nations. The resulting consequences, such as disease, poverty, sexual abuse, epidemics, and limited access to education, have sparked a broader global outcry.

By definition,  Internally displaced people are people or groups of people who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border. (UNGP, 2018).  Laden (2016) This definition is all encompasses and vividly shows that people may flee their home when there is imminent attack to a saver place to avoid loss of lives and destruction of moveable properties. However  Nigeria is one of the nations experiencing a significant prevalence of internally displaced individuals, with their population exhibiting a discernible upward trend at present, characterised by frequent and rapid increments. The tragedy has had a significant impact on several states and communities in Nigeria, resulting in ongoing misery for many. The occurrence of this calamity, prevalent in certain regions of Nigeria, can be attributed to factors such as community conflicts, civil unrest, outbreaks of diseases, criminal activities, and acts of violence. The issue of human relocation often presents itself in various magnitudes.

The operations of armed bandits in several northern areas of Nigeria are currently seen as highly detrimental and concerning.   Indeed, there is a proliferation of stories detailing instances where bandits, equipped with advanced weaponry, engage in acts of violence against herder villages and farms, with the explicit intent of causing harm to individuals and looting cattle. Ahmadu Sulaiman, the chairman of the Kaduna States Miyetti Allah Cattle Breeders Association of Nigeria, reported that a significant number of cattle, approximately 7,000, were stolen from both commercial livestock farms and traditional herders in Northern Nigeria during the period between October 2013 and March 2014 (Bashir, 2014, as cited in Azeez and Aliyu, 2016). The magnitude of armed banditry in this region has resulted in a significant number of fatalities, injuries, and forced migration among the local population. Moreover, the phenomenon of internal insecurity has compelled those impacted by it to relocate or migrate to alternative locations deemed secure for habitation. Therefore, the abrupt and unforeseen displacement has a significant impact on their overall welfare, particularly in the realms of politics, psychology, social dynamics, and most importantly, the economy.

According to Robinson (2020), individuals who have been internally displaced and have sought shelter in neighbouring towns are driven to initiate a new phase in their life within these host communities. In this context, they are left to confront their futures without any kind of support or help. Internally displaced persons (IDPs) are often viewed as unknown individuals inside their newly constructed communities, leading to their marginalisation and neglect by the local population. Moreover, the aforementioned persons are also denied of their socio-economic rights and subjected to both socio-economic and political control within the geographical regions in which they inhabit. The situation gets further worrisome when taking into account the contextual information that the majority of those who have been displaced mostly consist of young individuals and marginalised groups, such as women, children, and the elderly. Of equal concern is the significant burden that displaced persons have placed on the constrained social infrastructures within their host communities. The host communities encounter underlying issues, such insufficient infrastructure and substandard living conditions, which are further intensified and compounded by extra demands. The present situation raises substantial issues for the Nigerian government, humanitarian groups, academics, and other relevant stakeholders. 

1.2 Statement of the problem

In contemporary times, the matter of insurgency and the subsequent displacement of individuals has arisen as a pressing concern that need attention from both the Nigerian Government and non-governmental organisations. This attention is crucial for the purpose of enhancing human security and fostering socio-economic progress within the nation. The increase in bandit activities in northern Nigeria has resulted in a sense of insecurity among the inhabitants, making it difficult for effective governance to be established. The incursion of armed bandits into villages and the act of livestock rustling have presented significant security issues to Zamfara State and Nigeria as a whole. This phenomenon has been perceived by researchers (Egwu, 2015; Momale, 2015) as criminal businesses, which have significant implications for several aspects of society, including the socio-economic, political, cultural, and psychological sectors. Based on data provided by the International Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), the number of internally displaced persons reached 59.1 million in 2021 as a result of the incursion of armed groups into communities. The magnitude of armed banditry activities is significant enough to garner attention and elicit concern from both local and international stakeholders. These individuals were compelled to evacuate their residences in order to find refuge in an unknown and unfamiliar location, resulting in the loss of their possessions and exposure to significant adversity and preventable peril.

Ejiofor, Oni, and Sejero (2017) assert that the demographic categories most significantly impacted by these circumstances are vulnerable populations, including children, the elderly, and women, who are subjected to pronounced socioeconomic and political adversities.  Bizzarely, internally displaced persons (IDPs) are susceptible to several health issues, including vascular illnesses, malaria, malnutrition, waterborne infections, and premature mortality. Moreover, the displacement has a significant impact on national production, since it results in the displacement of the youth population, who comprises a crucial component of the country's productive workforce. The consequence is that the demographic of young individuals who possess the potential to contribute to the increase of gross domestic products are now experiencing unemployment within their respective host communities.  The aforementioned difficulties have a detrimental impact on the government's development endeavours, contributing to the persistent decline in Nigeria's development index. Consequently, these issues necessitate immediate action

According to Kusa & Salihu (2020), despite the Nigerian government's endeavours to alleviate the predicaments faced by internally displaced persons (IDPs) by the establishment of IDP camps, significant obstacles persist in these camps located throughout the northeastern regions. These concerns encompass issues such as overpopulation, inadequate sanitary facilities, unemployment, and insecurity. In several instances, the aforementioned circumstance has compelled internally displaced persons (IDPs) to evacuate the IDP camps in order to ensure their personal safety. This kind of action exacerbates their existing challenges.

Although, numerous studies have been performed to examine the long-term ramifications of terrorism on national security. However, there is a necessity to enhance our understanding of insurgency  in Northern Nigeria and its consequent effects on human displacement. This study was done under a specific context.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general objectives of this study is focused on an an examination of insurgency and it's impact on internal displacement in Nigeria. However, the specific objective of this are;

i.          To examine the root causes of  insurgency in Northen Nigeria.

ii.        To identify factors promoting  insurgency  in Northern Nigeria.

iii.      To identify the implication of insurgency   on human displacement   in Northern Nigeria.

1.4       Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

i.          What are the root causes of  insurgency  in Northern Nigeria?

ii.        What are the  factors promoting  insurgency   in Northern Nigeria?

iii.      What are the   implication of insurgency   on human displacement   in Northern Nigeria?

1.5       Research hypotheses

Ho: There is no significant implication of insurgency   on human displacement   in Northern Nigeria

Hi: There is a significant implication of insurgency   on human displacement   in Northern Nigeria


1.6 Significance of the study

The findings of this research would provide useful information to psychological centers, and clinical psychologist who seeks to offer therapeutic services to help victims of arm banditry to deal with the traumatic experiences. This study will provide useful literature for further researchers who will conduct related research in the future. Nongovernmental organizations also would benefit from this study even as they worked with IDPs. The research will help the NGO to know to help those who suffer psychologically as a result of what they experienced that necessitate displacement from their homes. To government, the study is of paramount importance for policy makers and citizens for it traces the historical development of domestic terrorism in Nigeria, focusing on how corruption, ethno-political control of resources , poor governance, poverty, beatings and blows against etc have all added to the rise of terrorism in Nigeria. The study will enlighten security operatives on the need to develop counter-terrorism strategy to enable them curb the insecurity in the North east. Theoretically, the study will serve as reference material to student and other researchers in this field, provide useful information to the general public and provide useful educational materials in the libraries.

1.7       Scope of the Study

Owing that making an investigation like this is the whole northern Nigeria is broad, there is need  to delimit the study to researchable scope hence the researcher selected   Gombe State as one of the affected State by terrorism with a sizeable number of internal displaced person.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

During the course of the research,  few minor obstacles while conducting the study, just as in every scientific endeavour. Lack of literature on   insurgency and it's effect on internal displacement of North   East Nigeria  was a key barrier. Hence, locating the pertinent resources, books, or information and the data gathering procedure took a lot of effort and organization. Language was also a barrier as most resident of Borno had difficulties understanding the research instrument because it was presented in English Language, hence the use of limited sample size. Therefore accuracy of the result will totally base on the data provided to the researcher by the educated resident and the results of this study cannot be generalized for other North East state, leaving a space for further research. Time restrictions were also an issue because the researcher had to complete this research while still going to classes and performing other necessary educational tasks.  However all aspects were minimized in order to deliver the best results possible and ensure the success of the research, despite the limitations that were faced during the study.

1.9       Definition of terms

Terrorism:     Is the unofficial or unauthorized use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims as well as illegal use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government as well as the population civil, or part thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.

Insurgency: An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion against authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.

Terrorism:     Is the unofficial or unauthorized use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims as well as illegal use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government as well as the population civil, or part thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.

Internal displacement / Internally Displaced Persons: Internally displaced persons are "persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border.


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