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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ACCEPTANCE OF CORONA-VIRUS VACCINATION AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS

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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ACCEPTANCE OF CORONA-VIRUS VACCINATION AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The recent contagious respiratory infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) with the same veiled RNA structure as SARS-CoV-1 that causes the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak has created a massive global human disaster (Rahman A, Sathi NJ 2020).

The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified it as a pandemic. On March 12, 2020. The first COVID-19 cases were discovered in Wuhan, China, at the end of December 2019. The virus has now infected nearly every country on the planet, and the death toll is rapidly rising (Sim MR. 2020). Over 3.5 million cases and 245,258 deaths had been reported globally as of May 3rd, 2020. The African continent was the least affected at the time of the study, with 43,909 cases and 1764 deaths, but the numbers were increasing, with Nigeria having more cases.

Knowing that social isolation and quarantine may slow the spread of the virus and flatten the epidemic curve; however, these measures may not be enough to completely stop the spread of COVID-19; herd immunity gained through infection or vaccination will need to be well established within the population (Fu C, Wei Z, Pei S, Li S, Sun X, Liu P 2020).

Vaccination is often the most effective way of controlling infectious diseases, but its effectiveness is jeopardized by individuals and groups who choose to postpone or refuse vaccines (Paterson P, Paterson P, Meurice F, Stanberry LR, Glismann S, Rosenthal SL 2016).

Despite the fact that immunization has successfully reduced the global burden of illness and death, public trust in vaccines can be undermined by a variety of concerns. As a result, vaccine hesitancy can cause delays and refusal, as well as contribute to disease outbreaks (Larson HJ, Smith DMD, Paterson P, et al 2013).

The most serious example is the 2003–04 northern Nigeria polio vaccination boycott, which resulted in a resurgence of the disease 6–8. In Nigeria, polio eradication efforts are still hampered by a fundamental breakdown in public trust (Larson HJ, Ghinai I 2011). However, Nigeria has declared that wild polio has been eradicated.

The interaction between patients and providers is critical to maintaining vaccination confidence (Leask J, Kinnersley P, Jackson C, Cheater F, Bedford H, Rowles G 2012 and Schmitt HJ, Booy R, Aston R 2007). Healthcare professionals' (HCP) attitudes and vaccination utilization are consistently associated with patient acceptance and vaccination, adherence to vaccination schedules, and reduced hesitation/aversion (Arda B, Durusoy R, Yamazhan T, Ta M, Pullukçu H 2011). Furthermore, vaccinated HCPs have a discernible influence on patients' decision to receive a vaccine.

Furthermore, vaccine hesitancy in the general population has consistently been linked to HCP vaccine hesitancy (Naz H, Cevik F, Aykn N 2006). Furthermore, the quality, content, and dissemination of vaccine educational information by healthcare professionals have been shown to be beneficial in improving patient acceptance of vaccinations, reducing reluctance, and guiding informed vaccination decisions (Mereckiene J, Cotter S, Nicoll A 2014). Indeed, patients frequently rely on healthcare professionals to provide information about vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases, as well as the therapeutic and public health benefits of immunization (Mereckiene et al 2014 and Asma S, Akan H, Uysal Y).

COVID-19 vaccine development is a critical challenge. The current pandemic's impact on the intention to be vaccinated against COVID-19 with an approved vaccine has not resulted in widespread acceptance among health-care workers. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this study was to assess and identify the determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among Nigerian health care workers.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The intention of health professionals to use and recommend the vaccine to their patients is influenced by their knowledge and attitudes toward vaccines. It has been widely reported that healthcare professionals who have an unfavorable attitude, aversion, or hesitation toward vaccinations pass on these negative attitudes to patients and tend to recommend vaccination less frequently (Arda et al 2011).

The availability of COVID-19 vaccines may not result in their use. Vaccines will be provided by governments, but use is entirely voluntary [R. Dal-Ré, R. Stephens, and N. Sreeharan 2021]. Several studies have shown that not all health care workers are ready to accept COVID-19 vaccines when they become available in their country [J. Shaw, T. Stewart, K. B. Anderson 2021 and A. A. Dror, N. Eisenbach, S. Taiber 2020]. A study conducted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, discovered that approximately 28 percent of health care workers would be willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine if it was available [M. K. Nzaji, L. K. Ngombe, G. N. Mwamba 2020]. Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, as well as the speed with which vaccines are developed and approved, have been identified as reasons for reluctance to accept COVID-19 vaccines [R. Shekhar, A. B. Sheikh, S. Upadhyay 2021 and K. Wang, E. L. Y. Wong, K. F. Ho]. Health care workers are a reliable source of vaccination information for patients [J. Shaw et al 2021 and M. J. Deem 2018], so their acceptance or rejection of COVID-19 vaccines may influence COVID-19 uptake in the general population.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of this study is to investigate to identify the factors influencing the acceptability of Covid-19 vaccination among health care workers. Hence, the specific objectives include;

1. Identify the factors responsible for the unacceptability of corona-virus vaccines

2. Identify if health care workers have an unfavourable attitude towards Covid-19 vaccines.

3. Identify if the attitude of health care workers towards corona-virus vaccines influences the recommendation of vaccines to patients.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

The following questions have been formulated to guide this research:

1. What are the factors responsible for the unacceptability of corona-virus vaccines?

2. Do health care workers have an unfavourable attitude towards Covid-19 vaccines?

3. Does the attitude of health care workers towards corona-virus vaccines influence the recommendation of vaccines to patients?

1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study on the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among health workers would help researchers and policymakers to design appropriate interventions to reduce vaccine hesitancy among health workers and the general population. This study will also serve as a source of information for students and society at large as the topic under study is crucial and controversial.


1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study examines factors influencing the acceptance of Corona virus vaccination among health care workers with specific focus on identifying the factors responsible for unacceptability of corona-virus vaccines, if health care workers have an unfavourable attitude towards Covid-19 vaccines and if the attitude of health care workers towards corona-virus vaccines influence the recommendation of vaccines to patients. Hence, this study is delimited to selected hospitals in Abuja FCT of Nigeria.

1.7  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The major constraints of this study include the respondents' attitudes, financial constraints, and time constraints, as the researcher had a limited time frame to complete this study.More so, due to the corona precautionary limitation, the research was limited to a certain number of respondents.

1.8  DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Acceptance: This is a general agreement that something is satisfactory or right.

Corona-virus vaccine: This is also known as COVID‑19 vaccine and is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

HCP: Health Care Professional

HCW: Health Care Workers


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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  • Methodology: yes available


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