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AWARENESS ON IRON DEFICIENT AS A CAUSE OF ANAEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMAN IN IJEBU IGBO COMMUNITY OGUN STATE

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AWARENESS ON IRON DEFICIENT AS A CAUSE OF ANAEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMAN IN IJEBU IGBO COMMUNITY OGUN STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Anaemia is a medical disorder characterized by an inadequate quantity of red blood cells in the body to fulfil the body's physiological requirements. Anaemia is predominantly caused by iron deficiency, making it the most prevalent worldwide. According to Rengasamy et al. (2018) children, women in their childbearing years, and pregnant women are more susceptible to anaemia. This is strongly correlated with an elevated risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, and low birth weight of the infant. Furthermore, iron deficiency is responsible for around 20% of perinatal death and 10% of maternal mortality in impoverished countries (Menon et al., 2018; Pasricha et al., 2020). Several variables, including age, gender, pregnant status, and detrimental behaviours such as smoking, might impact the concentration of haemoglobin. The causes of iron deficient anaemia can be divided into two main types. There are two factors that contribute to iron deficiency: higher iron requirements and impaired absorption of iron intake. DeMaeyer and Dallman, (2018), asserts that the body's iron requirements may increase due to factors such as growth and development, blood loss during menstruation, worm infestation, pregnancy, infections, or inflammatory bowel disease. Similarly, genetic abnormalities significantly contribute to the development of iron deficient anaemia. Anaemia is linked to disorders such as thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Furthermore, bone marrow illnesses might result in the inhibition of red cell formation, ultimately leading to anaemia. Nevertheless, Aikawa et al. (2019) states that throughout pregnancy, the body requires an additional 700-850 mg of iron, while lactation leads to further iron loss through breast milk. However, breastfeeding amenorrhoea serves as a means of compensation for this decline. According to Li et al. (2020), the reduced absorption of iron from the food may be attributed to the impact of some drugs that impede its absorption. An alternative option is to reduce the consumption of food items that are rich in iron. In industrialised countries, the typical daily intake of iron from diet ranges from 10 to 15 mg. However, under normal circumstances, only a small portion, specifically between 5% and 10%, of this amount is really absorbed by the body, resulting in a daily absorption of 1-3 mg. Beyond that, obesity is also recognized as a contributing factor to iron deficient anaemia (Ke et al., 2019). While, anaemia during pregnancy can adversely affect both the foetus and the mother. Its consequences include an increased incidence of abortion, postpartum haemorrhage, foetal growth restriction, hypoxia, premature birth, low birth weight, infections, premature rupture of the membrane and perinatal mortality. However, several studies have shown the significance of health promotion, educational interventions, and the utilization of an instructional handbook combined with counselling to avoid anaemia during pregnancy (Mohamed Elsayed et al., 2021).  The study therefore aims to conduct a survey on the awareness on iron deficient as a cause of anaemia among pregnant woman in Ijebu Igbo community Ogun state.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Anaemia is considered equally destructive and persuasive as epidemics of infectious diseases. It typically affect all although the worst affected are newborns, school-age children,women of reproductive age and pregnant women (Khan, 2021).  However, combatting anaemia appears to be a formidable challenge worldwide, particularly in emerging nations. The detrimental impact of anaemia could have a substantial economic burden on national economies. Approximately 58% of pregnant women in underdeveloped countries suffer from anaemia, which is responsible for 20% of maternal mortality. Additionally, 50% of all maternal deaths are associated with anaemia (Ma et al. 2019). However, approximately 50% of pregnant women in Africa are reported to have anaemia (Dim & Onah, 2018).In fact, anaemia and malaria are the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children in  Africa, particularly Nigeria (Ademuyiwa et al., 2020). Unfortunately, iron deficiency causes the regular loss of iron in the blood during menstruation and also disrupts iron storage due to parasites (Baidoo et al. (2019). Also, parasitic infections are closely associated with various interconnected risk factors, such as poverty, exposure to contaminated water and soil, and inadequate hygiene practices, particularly in rural communities without access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene services (Duko et al., 2020). Although anaemia is a significant contributor to maternal mortality in Nigeria, there are currently few efforts focused on addressing anaemia as a critical concern for safe motherhood in the country. Thus, it is in the light of this, the study seeks to examine the awareness on iron deficient as a cause of anaemia among pregnant woman in Ijebu Igbo community Ogun state.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the awareness on iron deficient as a cause of anaemia among pregnant woman in Ijebu Igbo community Ogun state. Specifically, the study will;

Evaluate the level of pregnant woman’s awareness on iron deficient as a cause of anaemia in Ijebu Igbo community Ogun state.

Assess  pregnant woman’s awareness on the implications of iron deficiency anemia.

Assess  pregnant women practices or measures for preventing anemia in Ijebu Igbo community Ogun state

1.4 Research Questions 

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

What is the level of awareness among pregnant women regarding iron deficiency as a cause of anemia in the Ijebu Igbo community of Ogun State?

What are  the implications of iron deficiency among pregnant women in  Ijebu Igbo community of Ogun State?

What practices or measures do pregnant women in the Ijebu Igbo community of Ogun State employ for preventing anemia?I

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant difference in the awareness of iron deficiency as a cause of anemia among pregnant women in the Ijebu Igbo community, Ogun state.

Ha: There is a significant difference in the awareness of iron deficiency as a cause of anemia among pregnant women in the Ijebu Igbo community, Ogun state.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will help pregnant women understand the importance of maintaining adequate iron levels and also help them adhere to iron supplementation regimens prescribed by healthcare providers, follow dietary recommendations rich in iron, and seek timely medical care if they experience symptoms of anemia. Also, policymakers and healthcare providers will develop strategies to enhance antenatal care services, promote iron supplementation, and implement community-based education initiatives tailored to the needs of pregnant women in the Ijebu Igbo community with the help of the study. Furthermore, this research will be useful to media house to disseminate information to  a large population regarding the importance of iron supplementation during pregnancy and the potential consequences of untreated anemia. Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the awareness on iron deficient as a cause of anaemia among pregnant woman in Ijebu Igbo community Ogun state.

1.7 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on the awareness on iron deficient as a cause of anaemia among pregnant woman in Ijebu Igbo community Ogun state. Empirically, this study will evaluate the level of pregnant woman’s awareness on iron deficient as a cause of anaemia, assess  pregnant woman’s awareness on the implications of iron deficiency anemia and assess  pregnant women practices or measures for preventing anemia. 

Geographically, the study will be delimited to pregnant women in Ijebu Igbo community Ogun state.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. 

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Awareness: the level of knowledge, understanding, and recognition of iron deficiency as a contributing factor to anemia during pregnancy.

Iron deficiency: is defined as a condition characterized by insufficient levels of iron in the body, leading to decreased production of red blood cells and hemoglobin. 

Anaemia: refers to a medical condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood, leading to reduced oxygen-carrying capacity and potential symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and shortness of breath.

Pregnant women: are women who are expecting a child and undergoing the physiological process of pregnancy.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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