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AN ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF HEPATITIS VIRUS AMONG RESIDENTS IN IKORODU, LAGOS STATE.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF HEPATITIS VIRUS AMONG RESIDENTS IN IKORODU, LAGOS STATE.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Knowledge of  Hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) and its complications is important for adequate prevention and treatment. Hepatitis B viral infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries particularly in Nigeria.  Conceptually, the term ‘hepatitis’ refers to inflammation of the liver and this refers to a wide range of clinical disorders caused by liver damage caused by viruses; toxins, drugs, metabolic factors or safety factors arise. Regardless of the hepatitis cause, its clinical course may vary from a mild to severe disease associated with severe impairment of hepatic cell function. Chronic hepatitis includes liver inflammation which lasting for more than six months, indicating that it is a disorder in liver function tests (Ivor, et al., 2015).

 In addition, Hepatitis can range from mild to severe, and it can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term). The most common cause of hepatitis is viral infections, which are categorized as hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E viruses. These viruses can spread through contaminated food and water (hepatitis A and E), blood and body fluids (hepatitis B, C, and D), and sexual contact. Hepatitis can have a wide range of symptoms, including fatigue, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and dark urine. Some forms of hepatitis may not cause noticeable symptoms, especially in the early stages. Chronic hepatitis, if left untreated, can lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, and an increased risk of liver cancer (Mahmud, 2018).

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major worldwide health concerns. HBV and HCV are associated with severe liver disease including chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Evidence has shown that liver disease caused by hepatitis viruses can be more aggressive and severe in HIV carriers. According to a recent report from Iran, 52.2% of AIDS patients are intravenous drug users, while 32.2% have been infected by sexual contact and the rest were infected by other routes such as blood transfusion and mother to child. Several high-risk behaviors, for example, first sexual experiences, the higher percentage of sexually transmitted diseases, high rate of addiction, and so on at this age might contribute to the higher possibility of HBV, HCV, and HIV infection in this group than others.

Young people and children are the largest investment of any society and the main foundation for its development. They are the greatest promise for the future. Because they are the parents, workers, leaders, and decision-maker of tomorrow. The nation's destiny lies in the health, well-being and the safety of its citizens. Young people and children should be provided with appropriate knowledge and life skills to enable them to make healthy decisions and choices, to adopt a healthy lifestyle and deal with infections and diseases(WHO, 2016).On the other hand, there is a good chance to establish protective health behavior patterns in young people, which might continue until adulthood.Moreover, although these diseases can lead to a huge burden especially in endemic areas, they are preventable. Prevention is the only safe and cost-effective strategy against chronic blood-borne viruses including HBV, HCV, and HIV.

Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to assess the knowledge and level of awareness of hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state.

 1.2 Statement of the Problem

Hepatitis is a major global health concern with substantial social, economic, and medical implications.Many individuals, especially in low-resource and undeserved communities, have limited awareness and knowledge about hepatitis, leading to delayed diagnosis and increased transmission rates.Additionally, ,some communities in Nigeria face challenges in terms of healthcare infrastructure, including a shortage of trained healthcare professionals and insufficient resources to manage hepatitis cases effectively.

It is in the light of these that the study seeks to  assess the knowledge and level of awareness of hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state.

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge and level of awareness of hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state.. Specifically, the study will;

1.         Assess the prevalence of hepatitis virus among residents among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state.

2.        Evaluate the level of awareness on the modes of hepatitis transmission among residents in Ikorodu.

3.         Assess level of knowledge and awareness on practices and measures for preventing hepatitis virus among Ikorodu residents in Lagos state .

4.        Identify the factors associated with  hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu residents, Lagos state.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

1.        What is the prevalence of hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state?

2.        What are the modes of transmission of hepatitis viruses among residents of Ikorodu, Lagos state?

3.        What is the level of knowledge and awareness on practices and measures for preventing hepatitis virus among Ikorodu residents in Lagos state ?

4.        What factors are associated with hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

1.        Ho: There is no significant difference on the modes of transmission of hepatitis viruses .

Ha: There is a significant difference on the modes of transmission of hepatitis viruses.

1.6  Significant of the Study

An assessment of Knowledge and level of awareness of hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state will be revealed to the government at various levels, policy makers, medical practitioners, media houses and  residents in this study. It will prompt the residents to seek medical advice and get tested for hepatitis, facilitating early detection and timely treatment. Also, government can use this data to allocate resources more effectively, directing funds towards areas with lower awareness and knowledge levels of HBV.It will additionally help policy makers in creating targeted educational campaigns and interventions to promote safer practices and reduce the transmission of hepatitis. Furthermore, this research will be useful to media house to disseminate information to  a large population regarding HBV, increase their  knowledge and  encourage treatment.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to an assessment of knowledge and level of awareness of hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state.

1.7 Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on an assessment of knowledge and level of awareness of hepatitis virus among residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state. Empirically, this study will elaborate the prevalence of hepatitis virus, the level of awareness on the modes of hepatitis transmission, the level of knowledge and awareness on practices and measures for preventing hepatitis virus, and identify the factors associated with  hepatitis virus.

 Geographically, the study will be delimited to residents in Ikorodu, Lagos state.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

 1.9 Definition of Terms

Awareness: a state of being aware that something exist.

Knowledge:refers to the information, facts, and understanding that an individual possesses or has acquired through learning, experience, or study. It is the awareness and familiarity with various concepts, principles, facts, skills, and information about the world.

Virus: an extremely small piece of organic material that causes disease in humans.

Inflammation:a physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddenedswollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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