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FLIPPED CLASSROOM STRATEGY ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

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FLIPPED CLASSROOM STRATEGY ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Effective communication, collaborative problem-solving, innovative thinking, and critical thinking are considered essential proficiencies for success in the current era (Chan, Cheung, & Lee, 2017). Digital natives of the twenty-first century must be endowed with pertinent proficiencies in order to meet the challenges of the contemporary era. Due to the necessity of addressing the requirements of these learners, advancements in teaching-learning environments and processes have propelled active-learning pedagogy to the vanguard of education. In order for students to actively engage in the learning process and retain information permanently, active learning is an essential component (Christiansen et al. 2019; Niemi et al. 2021). An essential limitation of education is that students must actively construct their own knowledge; instructors cannot merely impart information to them (Olusegun 2020; Thompson 2018). 

By adopting a flipped learning approach, educators can capitalise on the augmented opportunities presented by technology for constructivist instruction and learning (Koohddang et al. 2019). There are numerous potential benefits of flipped learning, such as increased time for one-on-one teacher-student interaction, active learning and collaboration, and self-paced learning. Furthermore, it affords students some flexibility should they be unable to attend certain lectures. Furthermore, flipped learning can be regarded as an adjunct to the conventional classroom environment as it promotes a greater allocation of class time for collaborative and active learning (Roach 2014). In an effort to promote active learning in a variety of educational settings, including K–12 and postsecondary education, flipped learning has been implemented in recent years (Hamdan et al. 2018). Since its initial implementation in the classroom, debates have often centred on its efficacy with regard to student academic progress. 

The flipped classroom model, which entails distributing regular classroom activities and content presentations as assignments and transforming them into classroom-based exercises, is a novel and inventive instructional approach (Bergmann & Sams, 2022). The reversed classroom model entails the teacher assuming the role of a facilitator, assisting students in actively engaging with lesson content rather than simply delivering it. Instructors engage students in practical activities, problem-solving discussions, and discussions (Akcayır & Akcayır, 2018). The flipped classroom model, which is the primary focus of this study, has been implemented in universities and institutions across the globe in disciplines including organic chemistry, social sciences, and humanities, among others. 

Organic chemistry has historically been regarded as a challenging subject (O'Dwyer and Childs, 2020). Certain authors ascribe this to the unfamiliar and novel assignments that organic students are expected to complete (e.g., delineating and interpreting three-dimensional molecules on a two-dimensional surface or forecasting reaction products by considering the characteristics and reactivity of the reactants). Additionally, the curriculum of organic chemistry is typically quite hectic, covering a substantial number of subjects within a single semester (Fautch, 2021). General chemistry is generally required prior to enrollment in organic chemistry programmes on a global scale. Nevertheless, the subjects addressed in these two seminars are quite dissimilar. Organic chemistry places greater emphasis on the correlation between structure and reactivity (Halford, 2019) and more complex cognitive endeavours that are more susceptible to alternative conceptions (Awidia & Paynterb, 2019), whereas general chemistry predominantly depends on mathematical analysis. The comprehension of the interrelationships and duties of organic chemistry must be strengthened through practice. Conventional instructional methods mitigate this concern by assigning homework assignments outside of class time and allocating lecture time during class. The flipped-class method, on the other hand, utilises in-class time for reinforcement purposes while relocating lectures outside of class. 

As a result of implementing the reversed classroom model, students' academic performance and learning experiences have been enhanced, according to research. Furthermore, compared to the conventional approach to teaching and learning, the model fosters learner engagement, motivation, creativity, and confidence; it also improves problem-solving abilities; and it creates a more enjoyable learning environment (Bergmann & Sams, 2022; Akcayır & Akcayır, 2018). 

The flipped classroom, according to Alzwekh (2020), is a form of contemporary teaching methodology that employs innovative techniques in a judicious and entertaining manner to address the current requirements of students. Furthermore, the reversed classroom concept is predicated on the reversal of learning assignments from the traditional classroom setting to the student's home environment, with the aim of enhancing the efficacy of contemporary technological tools in the educational process. According to DeLozier and Rhodes (2017), the reversed classroom is an instructional approach wherein instructors allocate class time for a variety of learning activities rather than conducting lectures outside of class. Students are required to examine all prepared materials for this exercise. Within this pedagogical framework, instructors generate instructional materials in the form of videos or multimedia presentations that pupils may access remotely via their tablets or smartphones prior to class. During the lecture period, students engage in guided exercises, practical applications, and assistance with completing homework. As stated in the preceding definitions, the notion of a "flipped classroom" entails inverting the teaching and learning processes in both the classroom and the home by incorporating contemporary technological tools into the preparation and delivery of lessons. Thus, prior to commencing the lesson, the instructor ensures that the instructional materials incorporating contemporary aural and visual multimedia and reactive evaluation, which are utilised to elucidate the new information or concept, are readily accessible to the students. In this strategy, the teacher serves as an intermediary and a motivator for students to learn by utilising the pre-class materials. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The flipped classroom, which has become increasingly popular in recent years, is regarded as a paradigm shift in the way in which students comprehend, assimilate, and retain knowledge. This learning model obviates the need for homework and instead grants students the ability to collaborate and complete assignments during class time, having reviewed instructional videos of the concept at home beforehand. 

An unfavourable perception of organic chemistry among senior secondary school students has been noted, as they perceive it to be a challenging subject (O'Dwyer and Childs, 2020). In the same way, their performance in this area of chemistry on both internal and external examinations (WASSCE and NECO SSCE) and school examinations appears inadequate. With the objective of enhancing students' performance in the esterification aspect of organic chemistry, this study implemented the flexible classroom approach. Precisely, this study seek to examine flipped classroom strategy on secondary school students academic achievement in teaching and learning organic chemistry.

1.3 Objective of the study

The primary objective of the study is to examine flipped classroom strategy on secondary school students academic achievement in teaching and learning organic chemistry. The specific objectives is as follows:

Determine the extent Chemistry teachers adopts and implements the flipped classroom strategy in teaching and learning Organic Chemistry in senior secondary school students.

Determine whether there is a significant relationship between flipped classroom strategy and students academic achievement.

Determine the impact of flipped classroom strategy on students academic achievement in teaching and learning Organic Chemistry in senior secondary school students.

1.4 Research Questions

The research seeks to find answer to the following question.

What is the extent Chemistry teachers adopts and implements the flipped classroom strategy in teaching and learning Organic Chemistry in senior secondary school students?

Is there a significant relationship between flipped classroom strategy and students academic achievement?

What is the impact of flipped classroom strategy on students academic achievement in teaching and learning Organic Chemistry in senior secondary school students?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between flipped classroom strategy and students academic achievement in teaching and learning Organic Chemistry.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between flipped classroom strategy and students academic achievement in teaching and learning Organic Chemistry.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The findings will be beneficial to chemistry teachers because it will provide them with effective method of teaching which they will incorporate in their day to day classroom instruction in order to promote learning. The findings will offer teachers ample time for classroom activities. The problem of time constraint, rushing to cover syllabuses, not conducting science practicals will be drastically reduced because much is covered outside the classroom. The result of the study is expected to help chemistry teachers in the proper implementation of the curriculum; active learning and participation of students is equally encouraged.

The finding of this study will be beneficial to students because it will expose them to flipped classroom instruction which will enable them develop skills in oral communication, self-efficacy, social and group skills necessary for success outside the classroom, increase in their retention ability, a good study habit and enhance creativity. The findings of the study will help to activate students’ interest in the learning of Organic chemistry as well as make them have supportive and committed relationships. It will enable students appreciate the need for their involvement in collaborative learning activities within and outside the classroom which will improve their performance and enable them to make better grades in Organic chemistry at a sitting. 

1.7 Scope Of The Study

This study focuses on flipped classroom strategy on secondary school students academic achievement in teaching and learning organic chemistry. Hence the study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary school in Ovia North LGA Of Edo State.

1.8 Limitations Of The Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Flipped classroom: 

This is a type of instruction that consists of internet-based individualized instruction outside the classroom and interactive group learning activities inside the classroom.

Chemistry:

This is a discipline that contributes to uplift humankind’s living standards through the provision of health and other social amenities. It is one discipline upon which technological advancement is hinged. Thus, chemistry education, and organic chemistry education in particular, must be every country’s gateway to technical and industrial growth

Organic chemistry: 

This is an important professional basic course of pharmacy major and a key link in the training of pharmacy talents.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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