INVESTIGSTION INTO THE EFFECT OF POLITICAL PARTIES ON GOVERNMENT POLICY MAKING IN KENYA
1.1 Background of the study
The concept of politics has been subject to varying meanings across various writers, with each definition reflecting the philosophical, social, and political context in which the authors operate.The absence of a globally acknowledged definition of politics has been rendered unattainable by this circumstance. According to Yakubu (2018), the concept of politics may be defined as the authoritative allocation of values. On the other hand, Steven and Daniel (2018) see politics as the process of determining the distribution of resources, specifically addressing the questions of who receives what, when, and how. According to Yakubu (2018), politics may be defined as the societal processes that result in the distribution of values by means of power structures. According to Frances and Ian (2018), the concept of politics primarily revolves on the exercise of power, a widely recognised perspective in the field. The level to which the character of the state, including its authority, influences politics is not widely recognised. According to Frances and Ian (2018), politics may be seen as a dynamic process characterised by the competition and conflict between many players who have divergent interests and perspectives on matters of public concern. According to the Marxian perspective, politics may be seen as a manifestation of class struggle. This struggle refers to the conflict between opposing social classes within a given society, as they vie for power over the state. The state, in this context, is viewed as an institution that serves as a tool for the dominant class to exercise its dominance. Despite the existence of varying perspectives on politics, a shared understanding emerges on the fundamental importance of the state and power within the realm of political dynamics. Therefore, the study of politics primarily focuses on the state, its institutions, actions, and broader influence on society. It also involves an examination of the government and its associated duties. The government, however, is regarded as one of the oldest and distinctive organisations in human history. According to Ian (2016), it has been seen in the past that social order, which is inherently present in human societies throughout all levels of life, is always accompanied by some kind of governance. Hence, the government may be seen as a constituent element of society (ibid). Additionally, the term government encompasses a comprehensive array of organisations inside society that are involved in the overarching process of governance. The collection of institutions has several components, such as the Cabinet, Parliament, local councils consisting of elected representatives, governmental bureaucracies staffed by civil servants, the military, the police, and the courts, among others. All of these institutions are actively involved in the process of regulating and guiding society. According to Ian (2016), government can be defined as the institutional apparatus responsible for formulating, expressing, and implementing the collective intentions of the state. This encompasses all branches of the state, both at the central and local levels, including legislative, executive, and judicial bodies, as well as individuals involved in the processes of lawmaking, administration, and legal interpretation. According to Cesi et al. (2015), the government is seen as a tool or entity used by the state to formulate and implement its policies. The structure of government has shown a diverse range of manifestations throughout history, undergoing periodic transformations when the tenures of certain political leaders conclude and new ones gain power. The many definitions of government often emphasise some key elements, including the presence of an organisation responsible for making and executing choices aimed at promoting the overall well-being of the populace, which necessarily involves human actors. The formal institutions are staffed by individuals, and decisions are made by these individuals. The term "government" encompasses a collection of institutions, together with the individuals who are employed or elected to manage them, through which the state fulfils its many responsibilities. The primary focus of these tasks mostly pertains to the development and execution of legislation aimed at safeguarding and effectively governing the populace. The government has a crucial role in upholding domestic tranquilly via the administration of justice, the enforcement of laws, and the safeguarding of property. The consensus among theorists is that it is the responsibility of the government to ensure the welfare, stability, and economic and social well-being of its citizens. Adebayo (2018) characterises political parties as organisations that fulfil crucial roles such as recruiting political actors, mobilising the general public, and offering alternative options for the electorate through organising and campaigning for votes. Moreover, it may be characterised as a structured institution whose explicit objective is to strategically install and maintain individuals in positions of public authority who possess the ability to independently or collaboratively rule the mechanisms of the state (David, 2019). Therefore, it serves as a significant mechanism for promoting citizen engagement in governance. According to David (2019), a political party may be defined as a structured collective of persons that possess comparable political ideas, attitudes, values, ambitions, and interests. The primary objective of such a party is to acquire political authority and then use it by establishing a governing body. Contemporary political theorists acknowledge the need of a well-defined ideology for any organisation to be classified as a political party, including various ideologies such as capitalism, socialism, or welfarism. In accordance with Fernando's (2018) perspective, a political party may be defined as an organised group that seeks to establish its values or policies as the governing force via constitutional methods. Political parties may be classified into several categories, including democratic parties, ideological parties, elitist parties, pragmatic parties, monopolistic parties, oligarchy parties, and mass parties. The prevailing categorization of political parties centres on the level of competition within a political system, namely one-party, two-party, and multi-party systems. Political parties fulfil a variety of crucial roles that contribute to the cohesion and functionality of the political system, therefore serving as a valuable indicator of a polity's political advancement. These duties include the organisation of public opinion, the communication of requests to the central decision-making body of government, and the recruitment of individuals into the political sphere. According to Fernando (2018), political parties fulfil several functions within a community. These functions include the provision of policy ideas pertaining to the governance of a society, the identification and training of political leaders, and the establishment of a connection between people and their government. Therefore, the study investigate the effect of political parties on government policy making in Kenya.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Political parties are often seen as instrumental entities inside modern democratic systems. The assertion that parties have significance is widely supported, aligning with conventional opinion. According to Fernando (2018), the presence of political parties inside the political framework and the presence of competing parties may play a crucial role in the transition from authoritarianism to democracy and in the sustenance of democratic systems. Nevertheless, there exists a prevalent mistrust about these organisations. It is evident that scholars have frequently expressed optimism regarding the significant roles played by parties in democratic societies. However, they have also been consistently perplexed by the actualities of party politics. These dynamics can potentially impact the policy-making process of a government, potentially to the detriment of the general populace, while simultaneously benefiting the personal interests of those involved. Hence, the need to investigate the effect of political parties on government policy making in Kenya.
1.3 Objective of the study
The broad objective of the study is to investigate the effect of political parties on government policy making in Kenya. The specific objectives is as follows
i. Find out the reason why political parties influences government policy making in Kenya.
ii. Investigate the effect of political parties interferance on government policy making in Kenya.
iii. Assess the challenges of seperating political parties from influencing government policy making in Kenya.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been prepared for the study
i. What are the reason why political parties influences government policy making in Kenya.
ii. What are the effect of political parties interferance on government policy making in Kenya?
iii. What are the challenges of seperating political parties from influencing government policy making in Kenya?
1.5 Significance of the study
The findings of the study is significant to the several political parties in Kenya as it will reveal the extent to which political parties interfere in in the decision making of government due to the fact that the elected official was elected through their platform.
The findings of the study is significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study focuses on the effect of political parties on government policy making in Kenya. Hence, the study will find out the reason why political parties influences government policy making in Kenya, investigate the effect of political parties interferance on government policy making in Kenya and assess the challenges of seperating political parties from influencing government policy making in Kenya.
1.7 Limitation of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced
1.8 Definition of terms
political parties: Political parties are collective entities that organize competitions for political offices
Policy: a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organization or individual.