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DEMOCRACY AND REGIONAL SECURITY IN AFRICA

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

It has always been the view of social and political scientists that the concentration of power on any single arm of government breeds dictatorship and destroy the basis of democracy. Thus, democracy is the best and acceptable form of government all over the world. Democracy may be defined as government by elected representatives of the people (Umoh and Olaitan 1989). Most states of the world are moving towards democratic government

Security is one of the major responsibilities that should be provided by any kind of government to citizens before it is being considered a stable government. This cannot be achieved in any political system unless there is good and proper democratic administration and good governance, which will run the state along the line of social justice, transparency, accountability, and free from any form of corruption etc. and the act of providing social well-being as well as putting more emphases on how to tackle any kind of threat that may arise and endanger the national security as well as regional security for the development of the state and society.

The issue of security and social welfare tally with provision of Nigerian constitution of 1999, where it was vividly stated in chapter II section 14:1, that;

The Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be stated base on the principle of democracy and social justice is hereby accordingly declared that: security and welfare of the people is the primary purpose of government; and the participation of people in their government shall be in accordance with the provision of the constitution.

The idea of national as well as regional security is a critical aspect that requires solemn commitment by any responsive government, because there is a strong correlation between security and development. The success of any good democratic governance is measured and revolve around its ability to ensure maximum security at both national and regional level to its citizens (Bashir, 2009:1}.

Therefore, security is a demanding activity that cannot be catered up without the existence of a reasonable democratic administration and good governance. Because regional security beyond the military realm to incorporate non - military factors likes development, for example, Robert McNamara had long warned that:

Any society that seeks to achieve adequate military security against the background of acute food shortage, population explosion, low level of production and per capital income, low technological development, inadequate and insufficient public utilities, and chronic problem of implement, has false sense of security (Ojo 2006:350}.

1.2        Statement of Research Problem

Nigeria returned to democratic government on May 29, 1999, which is the system in contemporary world is regarded as the best. But since then, the nation has been battling with lots of challenges that hinder smooth democratic regime and good governance to reign. The challenges have also been coinciding with problems of insecurity violent conflicts that claimed the lives of so many citizens. Hence, this research examines the aforementioned crisis in order to see the role of democracy in promoting regional security in Africa, as well as Kaduna North local government in the Fourth Republic, that is from 2011-2014.

1.3       Research Questions

Democracy ensures and promotes regional security so much that without it, security is not durable. Hence there is need for the following questions for this research.

                            i.          What is the security situation in Kaduna North local Government Area of Kaduna state, Nigeria, from 2011 to 2014?

                           ii.          What are the consequences of insecurity in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State?

                         iii.          Can the security stability of Kaduna North Local Government be seen as a result of democratic failure in the state?

                         iv.          What is the way forward?

1.4    Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this research is to examine the role of democracy in promoting regional security in Africa, as well as Kaduna north local government of Kaduna state. However, other specific objectives could be identified to include,

                 i.          To examine the major causes of insecurity in Kaduna North local Government Area          of Kaduna state.

               ii.          To examine the consequences of insecurity in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna state, Nigeria.

             iii.          To examine the failure of the present democratic administration to solve the problem.

             iv.          To proffer possible solution that can be applied to control the situation.

1.5       Propositions

       i.          The security situation might be in a critical condition in Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna state within the time frame of 2011till date.

     ii.          There is strong relationship between democracy and regional security.

   iii.          Only democracy and good governance can ameliorate the insecurity situation in Nigeria, and Kaduna North Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.6       Scope and Limitations of the Study

The research intends to cover strictly the impact and role of democracy in promoting regional security in Africa, and taking Kaduna North Local Government of Kaduna state as a case study, likewise, the period of the study will only be from 2011 to 2014.

The study also confronted some challenges such as financial and time constraints among others.

1.7       Research Methodology

            This contains the step by step process employed in the collection of relevant data for the study. In order to achieve the purpose of the study both primary and secondary sources of data shall be used. For primary source; I will employ the use of questionnaire, while the secondary will solely rely on written documents such as textbooks, journals, magazines, newspapers, official records as well as papers presented at workshops and conferences, the research methodology will therefore cover the following:

1.8       Method of Data Collection

The research will be conducted by applying the quantitative method. In this method, the instrument of data collection is questionnaire, in terms of the structure of the questionnaire, it will be close and open ended and it will be designed of the study. However, the close ended questions will designed to limit the respondent to specific response provided in the questionnaire, while open ended ones will be designed to allow the respondents to freely express their opinions or views on the topic. Thus, the questionnaire will be constructed or designed in English language. This will be done on the assumption that in a heterogeneous society like Nigeria, the official language “English” is the most suitable medium of conveying message. As for those who do not unde4rstand English or those who could neither write nor read, will be assisted by my interpretation into local language.

1.9       Source of Data

            The sources of data for this research work are through the primary as well as the secondary data. The primary data will come via questionnaire administered by me in the field work. While the secondary data on the order hand will be relied on or utilized by related documents such as textbooks, magazines, newspapers, official records, as well as paper presented at workshops and conferences.

1.10     Method of Data Analysis

            The information gathered will be analyzed with the use of quantitative method. This method involves the use of simple percentage and frequency table that will show the number of respondents, their frequency and percentage.

1.11    Definition of Terms.

Some terms that would be used in the research are democracy, security, region, and regional security.

Democracy:

Government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free and fair electoral system. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/democracy)

Security:

Literally means safety, or freedom from danger and protection from external attack or infiltration (Bashir, 2009: 2).

Region:

An area considered as a unit for administrative , functional, social or cultural division of  a country.(the free dictionary.com/region by farlex)

Regional security:

 It is seen as a form of protection and safety leveled within a political unit or geographical area.

1.12     Organization of Chapters

This study is divided into five chapters as follows:

Chapter One of this work contains the general background [introduction], statement of the research problem, research questions, objectives of the study, propositions, scope and limitations of the study, research methodology, definition of terms and organization of chapters.

Chapter Two covers literature review, gaps in literature review, justification of the study and theoretical framework.

Chapter Three contains brief description of the area of the study and elaboration of the methodology adopted in the study and discussion of events revolving round security challenges before 2011.

Chapter Four deals with the empirical presentation analysis and interpretation of data, discussion of data result and test of hypothesis and research findings.

Chapter Five consists of summary, conclusion and recommendations.

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