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AN ASSESSMENT ON THE INCIDENCE OF ANEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

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 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must start with the development of human resources. Much then is said that formal education remains the vehicle for social-economic development and social mobilization in any society.

Education therefore, plays an important role in the development of a total person for communication and effective transaction and makes the individual to fit properly into the schemes of life of a society. Parents are aware of these needs, hence the importance of monitoring the standard of education in Kaduna metropolis because it is paramount for the development of the area.

Education as the key to development has the capacity to upgrade teaching effectiveness as well as learning efficiency among learners. Efforts have been made by school administrators to improve the performance of Public secondary school students. The school environment, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers, etc are variables that affect students’ academic achievement (Ajayi, 2011 and Oluchukwu, 2012).  Hence, the school environment remains an important area that has to be studied well and managed to enhance students’ academic performance.

According to Jam (2012) academic performance is the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate this knowledge verbally or on paper. In other words, academic performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers.  There are quite a number of factors that determine the level and quality of students' academic performance. (Scottk, 2012). 

According to Hussain (2010) secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. This singular factor has caused serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.

Achievement is generally a pedagogical terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2014) has identified school achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects.

The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao, 2011). The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Delta State and Nigeria at large. The quality of education depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties. Over time pupils’ academic performance in both internal and external examinations had been used to determine excellence in teachers and teaching (Ajao, 2011). Teachers have been shown to have an important influence on students’ academic achievement and they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based on practice during interaction with the students (Afe, 2011). Both teaching and learning depends on teachers: no wonder an effective teacher has been conceptualized as one who produces desired results in the course of his duty as a teacher (Uchefuna, 2011). Considering governments’ huge investment in public education, its output in terms of quality of students has been observed to be unequal with government expenditure.

In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The increasing nature of poor academic performance of public secondary school students especially in external examinations like West African Examination Council (WAEC) and Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB), tend to shift the blame on the teaching methodology adopted by the teachers and lack of fund from the government to provide quality textbooks. However, these might not be the main reasons why students perform poorly in examinations. It is clear from all indications that most secondary school students have poor study habit which might lead to poor academic performance.

It is yet to gather adequate research evidence to prove that it is a key factor on why students fail. Emphasizing the importance of school environment to students’ academic performance, Oluchukwu, (2009) asserted school environment is an essential aspect of educational planning. The scholar went further to explain that unless schools are well suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.

The high levels of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where  space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. However, little is known on the impact of school environment on students’ academic performance in an urban city. It is true that inadequate provision of equipment in public secondary school, lack of funds, large classroom, and unqualified teachers among others has affected the overall development of education in Nigeria. It is based on the above stated problems that the study on assessment of factors responsible for students’poor academic performance in public secondary schools became necessary for investigation.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to find out the factors responsible for the poor performances of students in English language in selected Seniorsecondary schools in Kaduna metropolis of Kaduna State.Specifically the study is:

1.     To examine the factors responsible for the poor performances of students in English language.

2.      To examine the effects on students’ academic performance in secondary

          schools.

3.     To determine the strategies designed to address the problems of the poor performances of students in English language.

1.4   Research Questions

        The study is guided on the following research questions.

1.     What are the factors responsible for the poor performances of students inEnglish language?

2.     What are the effects of poor academic performance on students in Senior Secondary schools?

3.     What strategies are designed to address the problems of poor performance of students in English language?

1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses guided the study:

1.             There is no significant relationship between the factors responsible for student’s academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools.

2.             There is no significant relationship between the challenges for student’s academic performance in Senior Secondary Schools.

    for others who want to carry out research in related field.

3.             There is no significant relationship between difference on the strategies designed to address the problems of poor performance of students in English language.

1.6     Significance of the Study

The result of the study will be useful to students, researchers, scholars and educationists who use it for further studies.

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their schools, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school. This study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of student in secondary school.

It will serve as resource materials for others who want to carry out research in related field.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on the factors responsible for the poor  performances of students in English language in selected Senior secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis of Kaduna State. This research work covers all public secondary schools students within the study area. It covers the teachers and the students in all secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis.

1.8     Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered a number of constraints in the course of this study. These constraints include delay in getting data from respondents and reluctant in filling the questionnaire by both teachers and students.

This study covered all the secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis. Due to geographical spread of the schools and the large number  of students that offers the subject in the state, selected number of schools were used.

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