AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF NEWS COMMERCIALIZATION ON NEWS DISSEMINATION BY BROADCAST MEDIA IN ABUJA
Background of the Study
The mass media are tools for mass communication that have unique responsibilities to keep members of the society informed, educated, and entertained. It is through the mass media that the society gets to know what is happening within the country and around the world, and it is through the mass media that the society can respond appropriately. According to Lasswell (2019), one of the primary functions of the mass media is to perform the role of the society's watchdog. This means that the mass media are tasked with mounting surveillance over the environment and correlating the various components of society in order to guarantee the efficient operation of the system, which will help in the transmission of the social heritage from one generation to the next. In order to carry out these responsibilities, the mass media use a variety of strategies for gathering and distributing information. These strategies include straightforward news reporting, interpretive news reporting, and investigative news reporting. (Bo, et al, 2021). In Nigeria, the constitutional provision known as section 21, subsection 150 of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria from 1979 recognizes the important responsibilities that journalists play in the day-to-day operations of the country. It states that the press is required to uphold the aims and objectives of Nigeria as a nation and that the press is required to ensure that all organs of government (Legislature, Executives and Judiciary,) uphold these aims and objectives and perform the duties imposed on them in furtherance of nation building; the press is required to hold the Government accountable to the people in the performance of its duties and responsibilities to ensure that the aim and objective of nation building are realized; and it states that the press The preceding paragraph acknowledges the Nigerian media as partners in development and, as a result, gives them particular duties to perform in that capacity. In 1992, the Babangida military regime decided to deregulate the broadcasting business in order to facilitate a greater diversity of opinions and increase the number of people who may participate in the industry. This policy initiative's overarching goal was to give people who previously lacked access to media outlets owned by the government for whatever reason the ability to participate in public discourse by providing them with a forum in which they could voice their perspectives and judgments on topical and pressing issues. There is a consensus among people in society that journalists have certain obligations that they must uphold toward the public. These responsibilities may include the following: a contractual responsibility in relation to the media and their internal organization; a social responsibility obligation toward public opinion and society as a whole; a responsibility or liability deriving from the obligation to comply with the law; a responsibility toward national and international communities, to ensure acceptable values, norms, and standards; and a responsibility toward future generations to ensure a sustainable environment (Ugwuanyi, 2020). These are duties that the media are responsible for carrying out in order to fulfill their obligations to the general public. But, an environment in which members of the media industry carry out their responsibilities in response to financial promptings and rewards runs counter to the ethics and goals of the profession. The commercialization of news has emerged as a prominent trend in the reporting of news throughout the world and has been a source of ethical concern in the mainstream media. It is a deft tactic that allows the media to push aside its role of surveying society – spreading information about the event, and persons of social interest in order to prioritize financial benefits. To begin, it is necessary to define the notion of news within the framework of how it will be treated during the course of this article. Any account of recent events that are considered to be of public interest and have significant societal repercussions is considered to be news(Agbaje, 2021). The idea of news has been around for a very long time, long before the invention of newspapers and other forms of electronic media. For example, before the emergence of print and electronic media in Africa, people would convey essential information via traditional channels such as the town crier, the village square, the market, the stream, the beer parlor, and the palace, as well as through signs and symbols. These ancient means of communication had a significant drawback in that they were unable to convey information to a diverse audience. As a result, the development of mass media means of communication including newspapers, radio, television, and the internet became necessary. The news took on a new hue as a result, becoming a medium that not only kept people informed about key events in their local surroundings but also allowed them to maintain tabs on what was happening on a global scale. There is no better method to feed "the need to know" curiosity and hunger for knowledge than via the mass media, which offers news from across the globe to a large audience that is comprised of many different types of people. According to Hartley (2019), the codes and conventions of the news make it possible for members of the media audience to become "news-literate." This refers to the capacity to understand the larger world in terms of the codes that we have learned from the news. Therefore, this study examines the effect of news Commercialization on news dissemination by broadcast media in Abuja.
Statement of the Problem
Major issues that are inherent in the broadcast media as a source of news and other information have been identified as major problems by critics. These issues include the distortion of the news, imbalanced reporting, and the growing tendency for the public to not believe the media news (Onyisi, 2022). In addition, the commercialization of the news makes it more open to manipulation by special interest organizations, who are able to buy their way into the media in order to promote an ideology that they want people to adopt, regardless of whether or not it is good. The commercialization of news has the potential to skew the news. It's common practice for the individual who foots the bill to call the song(Idowu, 2018). The commercialization of the news renders it vulnerable to manipulation by special interest organizations, who are able to buy their way into the media in order to promote a notion that they want people to adopt regardless of whether or not it is good. The commercialization of news has the potential to skew the news. It's common practice for the individual who foots the bill to call the song. Therefore, the study will assess the effect of news Commercialization on news dissemination by broadcast media in Abuja.
Objective of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the effect of news Commercialization on news dissemination by broadcast media in Abuja. The specific objectives is as follows:
To examine the effect of news commercialization on the perceived “Brown envelope syndrome.
To find out whether news commercialization will contribute the spread of fake news.
To investigate whether news commercialization thrive in the Nigeria broadcast media.
The following questions has been prepared for the study:
What is the effect of news commercialization on the perceived “Brown envelope syndrome?
Has news commercialization contribute to the spread of fake news?
Does news commercialization thrive in the Nigeria broadcast media.
Significance of the Study
This research is crucial because it intends to educate professionals working in the media as well as students studying broadcasting on the significance of professionalism and commercialization in the media industry. The notion of commercialization in media houses will be aided by the study of commercialization in media houses, and knowledge of its role in boosting the success or failure of broadcasting industries would be gained.
The study is significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
Scope of the Study
The study will examine the effect of news commercialization on the perceived “Brown envelope syndrome. The study will also find out whether news commercialization will contribute the spread of fake news. Lastly, the study will investigate whether news commercialization,thrive in the Nigeria broadcast media. Hence,this study is delimited to Abuja.
Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Definition of Terms
news Commercialization: any action intended to boost profit that interferes with a journalist's or news organization's best effort to maximize public understanding of those issues and events that shape the community they claim to serve'
broadcast media: different communication methods such as television, radio, newspapers, magazines and any other materials supplied by the media and press.