FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CONSUMER PURCHASE AND CONSUMPTION OF EGGS IN ENUGU STATE
Although all consumers purchase and consume products from time to time, it is generally agreed that there are some factors that influences the decision the consumers take when it comes to purchasing and consumption. This influence helps to shape or determine what is known as consumer behaviour.
Consumer’s decision to buy a particular product is usually subjected to a lot of influences which include the distinctive living pattern of cultural groups as well as ethnic, religious and racial backgrounds. Consumption of food products like the one under survey (egg) could be influenced by various factors such as
(a) Properties of the food
(b) Personal related factors and environmental factors
The consumers’ knowledge of nutrition of food is also every crucial factor that influences the purchase and consumption of egg in our society. Since our food consumption pattern is considered to be poor, most people look out for supplements to augment what they take especially protein thus the resort to eggs both by adults and young ones.
It is obvious that no single food contains all the nutrients needed by the body in amounts sufficient to maintain life and promote optimum growth. Nevertheless most of what we consume is carbohydrate and cannot afford other expensive means or foods to get protein. This is evident on how households and individuals include eggs in their meals regularly.
However, in recent times, eggs appear to have been gaining wider patronage among bakers and hoteliers. The need to make their products tasty and nutritious has appreciably made all they produce egg based.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The response and increased consumption of eggs by consumers aroused our curiosity to undertake this study. This is at variance with the historical approach and perception to the consumption of eggs in our households and communities.
The increased consumption of eggs comes as a result of some factors which influence the purchasing and consumption pattern of consumers. Some times, because of the irrational behaviour of consumers, they tend to buy frivolously.
On the other hand, due to our food pattern and its nutritious values, consumers tend to use eggs to supplement the nutritious intake of their households. Consumers also use it as a source of protein for their young ones as well as the adults.
The central problem, which this research study will tackle, is to identify and examine those factors that influence consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs and also ascertain how consumers react to those factors.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of the study:
i. To examine the relative importance of the nutrition factors on egg purchase and consumption.
ii. To ascertain whether or not consumers of eggs are being influenced by their level of income during purchase.
iii. To examine how cultural, social, and income factors influence the purchase and consumption of eggs as it affects consumers in Enugu.
iv. To determine the extent the cultural and financial factors goes in influencing the purchase and consumption of eggs by consumers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is a thorough research into the consumption and purchasing pattern of consumers. The study points out the factors that influence consumer purchase and consumption of eggs. Therefore by knowing their factors, the supplier/producer will know how best to deal with consumers.
This research is also important because of its contribution to this growing field of knowledge because of peoples misunderstanding of consumer behaviour. This project will be an avenue to put producer/suppliers in the know about how consumers behave.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis is to be tested in the course of this research.
H0: That the consumers level of income does not influence his/her purchase and consumption of eggs.
H1: That the consumers level of income influences his/her purchase and consumption of eggs.
H0: That the educational level of mothers/housewives does not influence their purchase and consumption of eggs.
H2: That the educational level of mothers/housewives influences their purchase and consumption of eggs.
H0: That cultural value does not influence the consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs.
H3: That cultural value also influences consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs.
H0: That age distribution of a household does not influence consumer’s purchase and consumption of eggs.
H4: That age distribution of a household influences consumer’s purchase and consumption of eggs.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
This work covers the factors that influence consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs in Enugu. It X-rays the issues involved in consumer behaviour with a view to providing a detailed analysis for better understanding.
The choice of Enugu as a special reference is due to the fact that eggs are been consumed enormously in the city. This is evident in the fact that there is a large concentration of students in Enugu who eggs are important part of their meal.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
During this research work a lot of constraints and limitations were encountered. Some of these constraints were usual constraints encountered during the course of such academic exercise while some were unusual and boring.
The research method used in this study has a number of limitations. Concern has been expressed about a methodology, which relies on a small number of case studies for its data and the generalizationality of the findings of the study. However, the objective of the study was to provide an in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour thus the selection of individual consumer to be studied.
There were also the dangers of subjective errors in the data due to either retrospective bias or distorted perception of respondents or incomplete recording by the researcher.
Time is another limitation encountered during the course of the study. Some times, secondary data collected were not reliable, hence they were rejected. A lot of time was spent on the selection and examination of secondary data for the study.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Purchase Decision: The stage of the buyers’ decision process in which the consumer actually buys the product.
Cognitive Dissonance: Buyer discomfort, caused by post purchase conflict.
Adoption: The decision by an individual to become a regular user of the product.
Consumer Buying Behaviour: This refers to the buying behaviour of final consumers – individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal consumption.