The quality of service provided by any library will be determined by the richness of its collection. According to oxford advanced learner’s dictionary 8th edition, stock is a supply of something that is available for use. Stock in library terms refers to book and non book materials in a given library.
The term acquisition means different thing to different people. Evans, (2000) defined acquisition as the process of securing materials for the library collection, whether by purchase as gifts or through exchange programs.
Gorman (1998) described acquisition as the procedure which is primarily concerned with ordering, claiming and receipt of materials for the library.
Acquisition according to Bakare (1999) is the means by which books and non book material are collected in a library or group of libraries.
The Librarian Glossary (2001) defined acquisition as the process of acquiring, or the department concerned with acquiring for the library.
Webster part II (1984) defined acquisition as the act of acquiring
According to oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, acquisition is the act of getting something especially knowledge and skills.
Wulfekoetter, (1961): Acquisition is the means by which additions are made to the library; this involves bringing in new materials into the library stock. These materials maybe acquired through direct purchase, gifts, exchanges, donations, inter-library loan cooperation and legal deposit especially if the government designated the library as a legal depository centre.
It is also the process of obtaining library materials, both books and non book materials, which aims at building up a library collection.
Effective acquisition development can only be possible in any library if the functions of that library are quite clear in a policy statement. It has always been impossible for any library to possess every material.
Stock acquisition in Alex Ekwueme library, Federal Polytechnic Oko, involves print and non print material. (Book and non Book materials).
Book acquisition according to Adedibu, L.O (1983) is the procurement of library books whether they are acquired by purchase, gift or through exchange.
These are monographs, textbooks or set of blank sheet of papers bound along one edge and enclosed within protective covers to form a volume especially a written or printed literary composition presented in this way. Librarian Glossary (1971)
Stocks acquired are usually housed in a library.
Webster part II (2004) defined library as a collection of reading materials. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language (1994) defined library as a place set apart to contain books and other materials for reading, study or reference; as a room, set of rooms or building where books may be read or borrowed.
Kumar (1992) defined library as a public institution or establishment charged with the care of a collection of books, the duty of making them accessible to those who require the use of them and the task of converting every person in its neighborhood into a habitual library gore and reader of books.
According to Okeke (2001) library is an institution meant to collect, organize, preserve and disseminate informational materials to library patrons.
Chukwuma (2004) defined it as a place where professionally selected and acquired books and non book materials are processed and orderly arranged to make for ease of location, retrieval and use.
Hornby (2010) defined library as a building in which collection of books, CDs, newspaper etc are kept for people to read, study or borrow.
According to the Librarians Glossary of terms (1979) academic libraries are those libraries of universities, university colleges, and all other institutions forming part of or associated with institutions of higher education.
Ezamba N.C. (2004).says that an academic library can be defined as a library attached to tertiary institutions. Academic libraries are varied and distinctive as the institutions they serve.
Obodoeze,F.O.(2004) Opines that academic libraries are those libraries that exists in institutions of higher education such as universities, colleges of education, colleges of technology and polytechnics.
Therefore, stock acquisitions in academic libraries are the process or action taken by libraries to build up the library’s collection. Various ways are involved in acquiring library materials such as acquisition by purchase. In purchasing process, there is need for selection before acquisition, acquisition through gifts, exchanges and legal deposit.
Selection involves careful choice of items to be acquired by the library. Selection is based on the needs of user because the library in the polytechnic is primarily set up to support the polytechnic curriculum. Many things are considered during selection and acquisition and they include the objectives of the parent body/institution that is every institution has objectives and materials are acquired in the subject field of the institution’s interest.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ALEX EKWUEME LIBRARY, FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC OKO.
Alex Ekwueme library, Federal Polytechnic, Oko is an academic library made up of a network of three libraries located at Oko, Atani and Ufuma campuses. What is today known as the Alex Ekwueme library, Federal Polytechnic, Oko started in a one (1) room apartment with (400) volumes of books mostly in the field of classic and literature. This was when the Anambra state Government approved the institution as a college of Arts and Science to offer a remedial courses for students at the G.C.E ordinary and advanced level examinations. When the institution was upgraded to college of Arts, Science and Technology on June 28, 1980 more books were acquired to provide information resources to facilitate teaching, learning, research and community services.
The growth of the library was sustained with the unassailable objectives of the library, collection development in Alex Ekwueme library was expectedly dictated by the institutions curricula.
The college was formulized as Anambra State Polytechnic, Oko through Edict no. 12 of 1985. The library was moved from the one room it occupied to its present location and more books were acquired to beef up the collection.
The professional librarian Mr. U.C.U Uchedili was appointed to organize the library in line with established procedure in any academic library. This was during the regime of Professor C. Ezeilo as the rector in 1981. In 1993, the quality of its education programmes, the availability of vital infrastructure and personal initiatives of Professor Ben Nwabueze, the minister of Education. The Polytechnic was taken over by the Federal Government. At the same time, Atani campus of Polytechnic was established as one of the visionary strides of Professor Ben Nwabueze.
The nucleus of Atani campus library was established with 1,272 volumes of books in the field of Computer science, mathematics and Satatistics. The first professional librarian, Mr. Rowland Ofuluo was appointed in 1995 by recommendation of the polytechnic librarian. Dr Obiora Nwosu left the polytechnic for Nnamdi Azikiwe University. The polytechnic was at that capacity until June 2010 when Mr. F.O Obodozie took over as the substantive polytechnic Librarian.
Today, Alex Ekwueme Library, Federal Polytechnic, Oko has benefited from TET fund sponsorship, Federal Government grants and donations from philanthropic individual like Dr Emeka Offor. As a result of these interventions, the library has grown into one of the foremost academic libraries in Nigeria. They have also applied to Ranforly libraries in England to include Alex Ekwueme library in global rating of Academic libraries.
At present they have 220,000 volumes of books with 120,000 titles. It has equally grown in staff strength with (48) forty eight professional and Para professional staff. There is still room for improvement in manpower development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
It is obvious that diverse problems militate against Alex Ekwueme library in Federal Polytechnic Oko. Recently stock acquisitions in the academic libraries have little or no attention
In many libraries in Nigeria especially academic libraries, there is lack of fund to build up library stock. This is because sometimes Government do not provide enough fund to acquire library materials which aims at building up the library collections. Sometimes when government maps out fund for a particular institution, those in charge will not use it adequately and judiciously.
There is a problem of staffing in the department compared to the number of library users. In most academic libraries, there are few numbers of staff to compare to the number of users they attend to. When you come to the library, there are lots of students seeking for attention of library staff.
Inadequacy of reading space and furniture is also one of the problems in Alex Ekwueme library. When materials are been acquired in the library, there is no reading spaces and furniture for the library users.
The above problems affect stock acquisition in Alex Ekwueme library in Federal Polytechnic, Oko.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study carried out by the researcher are as follows:
i to identify the various methods of acquiring library materials at Alex Ekwueme library, Federal Polytechnic, Oko.
ii to ascertain the extent and procedure of book acquisition in the library.
iii to determine the needs of stock acquisition in Academic Libraries.
iv to find out the types of materials that are to be acquired in the library.
1.4 SCPOE OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to the acquisition of library materials in Alex Ekwueme Library, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, in Orumba North Local Government Anambra State. This research work discusses the acquisition of print and non print materials in the above mentioned polytechnic. This research work will examine the different types of materials which are been acquired by the library, the reasons for the acquisition of those library materials, its importance to library users.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Few books were written on the field or topic stock acquisitions, what we have severally are materials on collection development in which acquisition is included.
This research work is carried out by the researcher in order to help users especially library science students to identify the processes of stock acquisition in an academic libraries making reference with Alex Ekwueme library, Federal Polytechnic, Oko so as to enable them to differentiate between stock acquisition patterns in various libraries (public, school, special and national libraries).
Additionally, the study will help to contribute to the knowledge of anybody who might need information or assistance in the following ways:
· It will help students and researchers especially library and information science students who may need this work as a reference in the field of stock acquisition.
· It will serve as a guide to library staff to their users/patrons.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
The researcher formulated the following research questions on the assumption that it would aid her in bringing the research work to a logical conclusion.
i. What are the various methods of acquiring library materials at Alex Ekwueme library federal polytechnic, Oko?
ii. Are there procedures of book acquisition in the library?
iii. What are the needs of book acquisition in Academic Libraries?
iv. What types of materials are needed to be acquired in the library?
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
According to librarian Glossary (2001), These are monographs, text books or set of blank sheet of paper bound along one edge and enclosed within protective covers to form a volume especially a written or printed literary composition, presented in this way.
Books are non-periodical printed publication of at least forty five (45) pages. It is known that books carry the knowledge of the society and this knowledge is needed every time by the members of the society. As a result of this, books are published constantly to carry information.
Dina and Olukola (2002) cited UNESCO to define book as a non-periodic printed publication of at least (49) forty nine pages exclusive of the covers. A book can therefore be described as a collection of sheets in printed or written form which has been cut, sown, and usually bound between covers into volume. A book may be more than one volume like Encyclopedia Britannica which has 30 volumes. Books can be divided into fiction and non-fiction.
Non-print materials consist of library resources that are not in printed format. They are called audio-visual materials (A.V.M). These materials require special equipment for their use. They require auditory and visual appreciation to use them. They are divided into three:
i. Audio: They consist of sound recordings produced on magnetic tape. Examples are audio cassettes, audio tapes, records, educational radio programmes, etc.
ii. Visual: Visual senses (eyes) are required for their use. Examples are slides, film-strips, transparencies, microfilms, ultra fiche, microfiche, etc.
iii. Audio visual: These materials require both audio (ears) and visual (eyes) senses for their use. They include television, videotapes, tape/slide programmes.
This embodies a number of library activities which include the selection of library resources, the acquisition of those materials selected, development plans for sharing resources between libraries, maintenance of resources acquired, weeding, conservation and preservation of library materials.
This is the process of choosing books to be included in the library holdings.
Uchedili U.C and Uchedili E.E (2006) opined that selection is a process of deciding which materials to acquire for a library collection. It is a matter of systematically determining quality and value. They further suggested reasons for selection in libraries which are as follows:
i. Achievement of objectives: Every library has a set of objectives which represent the basic function of its parent body.
ii. Need/use: Library only needs to acquire materials needed by its users. Every library is established with potential users in mind, so selection must be according to their needs because effective collection building cannot take place without reference to the needs of the users.
iii. Selection due to variety of resources: Library has to select which materials to acquire amongst others in the same subject.
iv. Limited resources: Libraries select because no library can afford to buy all that is needs.
Non print materials with reference to Alex Ekwueme Library is in audio visual Unit (AV unit) .
Uchedili and Uchedili (2006) says that non print materials are the audio visual materials. They include:
16mm sound projector,8mm projecter,2X2 slide projector, film stride projector, overhead projector,television,reel-reel player, cassettes,record player, video tape recorder, cameras etc.
8mm films, 16mm films, graphic materials, microform, transperencies,multimedia kits etc. These materials require special handling and a good environmental condition. In Alex Ekwueme Library, federal polytechnic, OKo they have the following non print materials as mentioned by the polytechnic librarian Mr. F.O. Oboboeze as follows;
Four overhead projectors, two slide projectors, four television sets, 29 computers, but only six are functioning, four reel-reel tapes, two loud speakers, satellite dish installed by TET fund and White screen for projector