PRODUCTION OF SOYBEAN FORTIFIED POWDERED PAIP FROM MAIZE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Akamu in Igbo or ogi in Yoruba is a fermented cereal paste made from maize (Zea mays), sorghum or guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare) or millet (Pennisetum typoideum). The colour of akamu depends on the cereal colour used which may be cream colour from maize, reddish-brown colour from sorghum. Akamu from sorghum is popular in northern Nigeria and most parts of West Africa which porridge or gruel is very smooth in texture and has a sour taste (pH 4.8) and inhibits growth of some bacteria. Fortification of ogi with legumes, vitamins and minerals alongside improvement on the production techniques which led to the development of soya-ogi, a combination of maize and soybeans have been reported.
Increase food use of sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa will alleviate the problem of chronic under-nourishment, as sorghum is readily available in all parts of the countries. However, nutritional problems associated with cereals are their general low protein content and significant less digestible nature when cooked compared to other cooked cereal protein. This could cause protein malnutrition for infants fed exclusively on sorghum-based meal. Also, cereals are low in minerals and vitamins which along with protein are essential nutrients needed for the wellbeing and healthy growth and development of infants, children and adults who relish exclusively on akamu. Supplementation of cereals with locally available legumes that is high in protein will increase protein quality and the nutritive values of akamu lost during steeping, milling and sieving processes compared to the use of single cereal. Also, protein supplementation will prevent protein-energy malnutrition in infants weaned exclusively on akamu. As cereals and their products are invariably cooked prior to consumption, these problems are inevitable and require urgent attention.
Several efforts are currently on, in Africa to modify the processing of akamu with a view to enhancing its nutritive value, shelf life and possible therapeutic qualities. One likely method of achieving this is by formulation with soybeans alone or by formulation or may be fortified with vitamins and minerals Also, cereal fermentation was employed to preserve, impart aroma and flavour while producing novelty foods products with improved nutrients for complimentary feeding.
Soybean oil varies between 13.9 to 23.2% depending on locality, cultivar and horticultural practices and 40% higher calorific value than protein and carbohydrates. Soybean is a cheap source of good quality protein with good balance of the essential amino acid and high quality oil. Protein content of soybean contains considerable quantity of lysine (6.2g/16gN), but limited by methionine and cystine content (2.9g/16gN). Absence of cholesterol, lactose and presence of essential amino acids makes soybean vital for infant growth and maintenance.
Soybean sprouting is an age long act of improving the nutritive value of legumes, reduction in anti-nutrients and flatulence causing oligosaccharides (stachyose and raffinose), thereby increasing protein digestibility and sensory properties. Also, sprouting increases vitamins, minerals (calcium, copper, manganese, and zinc), nutrient bioavailability and free amino acid. Sprouted soybean had been used to formulate complementary foods.
Gruel also known as akamu or ogi when prepared from the paste with hot water after dissolving same with tap water into light thick consistency serves as a major weaning food for the infants in West Africa or by nursing mothers as it encourages breast milk supply, a good vehicle for food nutrients to sick people because it is an energy food rich in carbohydrates with traces of vitamins (Oyelana et al; 2012). it is easily digested and light in the stomach. A blend of sorghum- sprouted soybean will not only boost the nutritive value of akamu as a breakfast meal, weaning food and choice food for the sick but will also boost production and consumption of soybean. This work therefore aimed at improving the protein content of akamu using sprouted soybean paste.