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PRODUCTION OF SOYBEAN FORTIFIED POWDERED PAIP FROM MAIZE

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PRODUCTION OF SOYBEAN FORTIFIED POWDERED PAIP FROM MAIZE   CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Akamu in Igbo or ogi in Yoruba is a fermented cereal paste made  from  maize  (Zea  mays),  sorghum  or  guinea  corn (Sorghum vulgare) or  millet (Pennisetum  typoideum).  The colour of akamu depends on the cereal colour used which may be  cream  colour  from  maize,  reddish-brown  colour  from sorghum.  Akamu  from  sorghum  is  popular  in  northern Nigeria and most parts of West Africa which porridge or gruel is very smooth in texture and has a sour taste (pH 4.8) and inhibits growth of some bacteria. Fortification of ogi with legumes, vitamins and minerals alongside improvement on the production techniques  which  led  to  the  development  of  soya-ogi,  a combination of maize and soybeans have been reported.

Increase food use of sorghum in  sub-Saharan Africa  will alleviate  the  problem  of  chronic  under-nourishment,  as sorghum is  readily  available  in all  parts of  the countries. However, nutritional problems associated with cereals are their general low protein content  and  significant  less digestible  nature  when  cooked  compared  to  other  cooked cereal  protein.  This could cause protein malnutrition for infants fed exclusively on sorghum-based meal. Also, cereals are low in  minerals  and vitamins  which  along  with  protein are  essential  nutrients needed  for  the wellbeing  and healthy growth and development of infants, children  and  adults  who relish exclusively on akamu. Supplementation of cereals with locally available legumes that is high in protein will increase protein quality and the nutritive  values  of akamu  lost during steeping,  milling  and  sieving  processes  compared to the use of  single  cereal.  Also,  protein  supplementation  will prevent  protein-energy  malnutrition  in  infants  weaned exclusively  on  akamu.  As  cereals  and  their  products  are invariably  cooked  prior to consumption,  these  problems are inevitable and require urgent attention.

Several efforts  are  currently  on,  in  Africa  to  modify  the processing  of  akamu  with  a  view  to  enhancing  its  nutritive value, shelf life and possible therapeutic qualities. One likely  method  of  achieving  this  is  by  formulation  with soybeans alone or by formulation or may be fortified with vitamins  and  minerals  Also,  cereal  fermentation  was employed  to  preserve,  impart  aroma  and  flavour  while producing  novelty  foods  products  with  improved  nutrients for complimentary feeding.

Soybean  oil  varies  between  13.9  to  23.2% depending  on locality,  cultivar  and  horticultural  practices  and  40% higher  calorific  value  than  protein  and  carbohydrates. Soybean is  a cheap  source of good quality protein  with good balance of  the essential amino acid and  high quality oil. Protein content of soybean  contains  considerable  quantity of lysine  (6.2g/16gN),  but  limited  by  methionine  and  cystine content (2.9g/16gN). Absence of cholesterol, lactose and presence  of  essential  amino  acids  makes  soybean  vital  for infant growth and maintenance.

Soybean  sprouting  is  an  age  long  act  of  improving  the nutritive  value  of  legumes,  reduction  in  anti-nutrients  and flatulence causing oligosaccharides (stachyose and raffinose), thereby increasing protein digestibility and sensory properties.  Also,  sprouting increases  vitamins,  minerals (calcium, copper,  manganese,  and  zinc),  nutrient  bioavailability  and free  amino  acid.  Sprouted  soybean  had  been  used  to formulate complementary foods.

Gruel also known as akamu or ogi when prepared from the paste with hot water after dissolving same with tap water into light thick consistency serves as a major weaning food for the infants  in  West  Africa or  by  nursing  mothers  as  it encourages  breast  milk  supply,  a  good  vehicle  for  food nutrients  to  sick  people  because it  is  an energy food rich  in carbohydrates with traces of vitamins (Oyelana et  al;  2012). it is easily digested  and light in the stomach. A blend  of sorghum- sprouted soybean  will  not  only  boost  the  nutritive value of akamu as a breakfast meal, weaning food and choice food  for  the  sick  but  will  also  boost  production  and consumption  of  soybean. This  work therefore  aimed at improving  the  protein  content  of  akamu  using  sprouted soybean paste.


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