One of the basic necessities of life which are food, shelter, water and Air is of great importance to humans most especially in public buildings where there is high traffic and congestion most of the time. Research has shown that people spend about 90 percent of their time indoor since the majority of people’s daily activities take place indoor, the atmosphere inside of public building has a major impact on the health and safety of majority of the population can actually have more damaging effects on health than pollution in the air outside. This necessitates the need for cross ventilation in public buildings because it helps to mitigate these health risks while also protecting the public buildings.
A public buildings could be church, mosque, schools, or hospital, which holds a large crow for a number of reasons and etc. and if proper care is not taking in public buildings, which is always crowded needs to be supply the occupants with good ventilation so as to prevent suffocations; and there is a needs for cross ventilation in public buildings more so, Maslow 1943 opined that cross ventilation is of paramount importance for human existences as consider the core basic needs and necessities. He further posited shelter and food security and water as essential ingredients that nourish the psychological and mental frame of mind of human, and when this basic needs are met; human beings level of productivity increases up to the next stage of quest for better living condition. According to O’ Brien 2016, ventilation is critical to home comfort. Proper ventilations prevent air pollutants from affecting the health of you and your family. Not only that having air flow in your home can get rid of any unwanted smells, such as from cooking and pets. It is also good to have an air flow that is uninterrupted, as anything blocking the air in your homes can Cause damage to both your homes and your health. In relation to the discussed, this research lingered on ascertaining and the assessment of cross ventilation in public buildings.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Pultar 1999, the architectural space and circulation, carefully designed and planned space make architecture what it is, the space that we live in move through and use. Studies of space are formed in many disciplines, where they have different meanings. it is a concept that is central to many different areas of studies has varied meanings, ranging from totally abstract motion such as mathematical space, to physical ones such as astronomical space to more earthly ones, such as they expanse that surrounds us, to behavioral notions such as territorial space and personal space. This great variety of possible types of space makes the definitions of space in planning and design difficult. Generally speaking, however is a three
Dimensional extension of the wall around us, the intervals, distances and relationship between people and things. Architectural space is defined as subsets of three dimensional extension of the wall around us such that it is entered by man, includes definite material element, especially a base that allows one to perceive its boundaries and its perceive as a whole, serves human functions of habitation, shelter or circulations and is internationally build or appropriated by man to serve such functions, (Pultar 1999). According to O’Brien, 2016, one of the reason ventilation is so important is because it controls how much moisture in lingering in your home. If have you have adequate air flow throughout your home, your walls, floors and all the wood in your home would stay dried and not collect moisture wood can rot when exposed to moisture, as can dry wall. If you let moisture build in these areas of your homes, they would not only destroy the structural integrity, but they would also cause mold to build up. Mold can have a number of negative effects on your health, if you are exposed to it for a long time. One fundamental reason is that a building provides a means of molding various elements of the natural environment, which we sample with one five senses (feelings, seeing, hearing, smelling and testing). Our senses enable us to experience heat, light, sound, odors and thus determine the character of natural and built environment. Our experience of environment is determined specifically by our capacities to sense the several types of energy the surrounds us. Radiant energy (light, thermal energy; heat) and mechanical energy (sound). And, although odor is not specifically manifested as an energy form, it is affected by thermal and possibly mechanical–energy. (Heerwagen, 2004). An architectural space is used to shape and express identity. The notion of architectural space should also be understood to include structures of space that is sets of spaces so interrelated to each other that the functions they serve extends through these spaces.(Baxter and Martin, 2010). According to O’Brien, he posits that if you are exposing to molds for a long time, you might notice some minor symptoms, such as irritations for your nose, throats and eyes. You might possible develop a headache or a fever if you are exposé for a longer period of time. Mold can both cause immune system problems and worsen the symptoms for someone who already has an auto immune disease. For prolonged exposure to mold can result in respiratory damage; that can’t be reversed such as Asthma. If have proper ventilation in your home, you won’t have to worry about mold forming. An important characteristic of an architectural space is man’s involvement in its generation and his partaking of life in it. As an architectural planning process, it is described as communications among differentiated spaces and between the exterior and the interior which may be achieved by openings alone in the simplest plans, but most buildings requires a distinct spaces allotted to horizontal and vertical circulation such as corridors, lobbies, stairs, rams and elevators, to mention a few. These are designed by the procedures of analysis employed for differentiating uses, since their functions can be different (Pultar, 2009).
The interest to carry on this research work was triggered by the fact that churches, schools and hospitals are tagged and is known to be public building which host large crowds and therefore natural cross ventilation is very key in achieving comforts and also prevents suffocations; and other air bone diseases.
Therefore, it is indispensable to supply the building with fresh air, and insufficient ventilation can cause tiredness, lack of concentration or headache. Cross ventilation offers the means to control air quality in buildings, haven witnessed the even that took place in one of these churches in Jos North area of Plateau State, it was so terrible at a point one may have lost his or her life. In trying to get the fact on the occurrence, I found out that, the people who were directly involved and affected said that, suddenly there was a teargas by the police men around the church premises, and because of the crowd and lack of ventilation in the church many people almost lost their lives. It is on this note that ventilation as it were, is very important in human life and gave rise to the need for this research work.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is the aim of the study to analyze the level of performance of natural air Ventilation with a case study of some Churches, Schools and Hospitals in Jos North Area of Plateau State. The absence of professionals left many people incapacitated, I discovered that most buildings in Jos north Area of Plateau State were not built by professionals. In view of the aforementioned, the research will linger in identifying how can the erection of building follow setting standards and established guidelines that would put human safety(health), human comforts and guaranty proper cultural heritage and thereby guaranteeing a qualitative and sustenance of good standard of living, with respect to provision of basic necessities of life (like food and shelter).
1.4 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to facilitate Cross ventilation in Public Buildings.
1.5 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to be achieved through the followings objectives;
Investigate the current trend.
Proper Orientation of buildings with respect to their openings.
Provide good fenestration so as to facilitate good ventilation and lightening in buildings.
The use of landscape as microclimate control.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Due to some constraints which includes; financial constraint, time constraint and geographical constraint, the researchers focused on practices and effects of cross ventilated public buildings citing the research work to Jos metropolis as the research findings can be used for proper solutions to erecting of buildings in Nigeria in retrospect
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings from this research will hopefully give an understanding of how to achieve cross ventilation in public buildings. The information gotten from this study shall provide a guide which can be used towards achieving good cross ventilation as it relates to sustainability.
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study would examine the existing literature related to the topic subjected in review. The study would adopt a survey method in form of questionnaires because it gives the opportunity to make inferences about the characteristics of a population which is the purpose of the study.
The following means would be employed in the collection and collation of the data for this research work: the data obtain for the research work subjected and tested by the use of statistical tools and statistical means of analysis, the statistical tool employed were to be analyses descriptively.
Primary data: personal study carried out through the collection of data in the form of questionnaires administered to the occupants of public buildings and site investigation as well.
Secondary data: data sourced from various books, articles, journals written on the subject of appraisal. This would be done with view to having a proper, well researched subject by extracting relevant information which would aid in buttressing the aim and objectives of this research.
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research