This project review the conformability of uninterrupted power supply through the use of power inverter, However, inverter is of different categories base on power rating such as 1KVA, 1.5KVA, 5KVA etc. Moreover, since the invention of inverter, some problem associated with alternative power supply had been drastically reduced. Meanwhile, the problems such as: noise, production of fumes cost of procurement of oil, fuel and maintenance of plant is over.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is a well known fact today that electrical power supply is not reliable. All over the world, there is a significant electrical power supply interruption. Because of these electrical power supply interruption, many electrical instruments have this developed problems or even stopped working entirely. Hence this crippled much business thereby affecting many countries economy as Nigeria. Also there is increase in occurrence of power supply disturbance, which can be viewed as a form of power pollution. High voltage spikes and momentary voltage drops are therefore common. These power disturbance may affect the performance of of sensitive equipment in private and corporate organization causing loss of data and even damage to equipment.
In Nigeria today, it is not an overstatement to talk about the epileptic supply of electrical power. This has become the order of the day such that many Nigerians now view these power outages as “normal” and part of their daily life. A wide range of factors has been identified for this problem. They include natural disasters, vandalism, maintainability and sustainability and lack of local content. The problem of poor quality power supply cannot be properly addressed without a review of other factors such as lack of political will to invest adequately in power sector, absence of replacement policy resulting in obsolete equipment, unsustainable human capacity building and inadequate reward and remuneration system to motivate human resources to perform well.
According to the recommendation made by the institute of Electrical Electronics Engineering (IEEE), the supplies that should be available for use should be continues, uninterrupted with constant frequency and within the load determine in terms of voltage and current. These requirements have become even more relevant in view of the high sensitivity and sophistication of modern technological equipment in use today.
The progress made in developing alternate source of energy over the last decades has showed that independent power systems are not only possible but also very practical. Infact a wide variety of generating equipment is now available to allow individuals take advantage of just any renewable source of energy, for number reasons however, most of these systems produce only direct current (DC) and often do so only at low voltage. Nonetheless, it is generally agreed that the greatest and most useful form of current is the alternating current (AC) since this exists in the vast majority of homes.
Therefore, there arises the need to able to convert Direct Current (DC) to Alternating Current (AC) that will be of a constant frequency and also be used to power electrical circuits either in homes or in industries. Such electrical device is called an inverter.
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC), the converted A.C. can at any required voltage and frequencies, with the use of appropriate transformer, switching and control circuit. Inverters are common used to supply A.C. power from DC sources such as panels or batteries.
The electrical inverter e.g. 5KVA, 220 – 240, 50Hz is high power electronic oscillator. It is also named because early mechanical AC to DC converters where made to work, in reverse and thus are “inverted” to convert D.C. to A.C. the inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
In this project, a 5KVA D.C. to A.C inverter will be constructed and analyzed. The primary objective of undertaking this project is for the following reasons:
1. To design an electrical system capable of producing power from a 12v D.C. battery that will be used to produce an output of 5KVA 50Hz – 240v which will be used to drive electrical appliances.
2. The project is also aimed at exposing the HND students to simple electrical design and building electrical circuit.
3. The project (5KVA, 220 – 240v inverter) will also help the student to understand the basic principles of operation of an inverter circuit and its relevance in the society.
4. The project is also aimed at introducing the principle circuit of analysis
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The project has been undertaken i.e 5KVA, 220 – 240 volt inverter has four stages or units.
These units includes
i. Supply unit
ii. Inverter unit
iii. Step-up transformer unit
iv. Triggering unit.
The scope of this project is primarily to show how the low voltage DC power supplied is used to energize the circuit. It will also show how the inverter unit convert he low voltage DC into a low voltage AC in form of square wave. The triggering unit provides the trigging pulse needed by MOSFET to operate.
1.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In spite of the base of construction of an inverter and it’s noiseless and pollution free native unlike other alternative source of the generating electricity, there is a need for charging and recharging the battery form time to time.
Also the use of the bulky transformer instead of copper transformer which is lighter and smaller in size, but more expensive amitation.
Another limitation is the inability of the circuit to provide a pure sine wave output wave form. This is because it is quite expensive to design a pure sine wave inverter circuit.
1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THE PROJECT
The 5KVA, 220 – 240v, 50Hz inverter is constructed using the following components: Resistor capacitors, semiconductor diode, transistors, (MOSFET), integrated circuit (ICS), transformer. The MOSFET is the major component used in the inversion of Direct Current (DC) to Alternating current (A.C)
This 5KVA inverter project report is arranged in the following sequence.
- Chapter one discusses a general introduction to the project. It gives us a background of the project Helping us to see the relevance of this inverter project in the world today, it also discusses the objectives of an inverter as well as type.
- Chapter two discusses the various literary review opinions and ideas that various authorities in the world of electronics, discusses about the inverter system, discusses a general description or the various components used in the construction of this project.
- Chapter three discusses the design and the principles of operation.
- Chapter four discusses the construction procedure.
- Chapter five is the bill of Engineering measurement and Evaluation.
- Chapter six show how the project was packaged and its conclusion.