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THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING­ AND LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The word geography is coined from two Greek words 'Geo' meaning earth and 'grapghy' meaning to describe. Therefore, geography can also be defined as description of the earth. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. Geography is unique in bridging the social sciences (human geography) with the natural sciences (physical geography). Geography is simply defined as a science that deals with Earth's surface. People who study geography are called geographers. Geographers are interested in Earth's physical features, such as mountains, deserts, rivers, and oceans. They are also interested in the ways that people affect and are affected by the natural world. Geography has everything to do with our Everyday Life. Geography is the study of place, and seeks to understand the ways in which humans influence their environment, and in turn explore the influence the environment has on humans. Quite simply, it is the study of the world around us. Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola (1997). Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.Instructional materials according to Emma and Ajayi (2004) are those things which help teaching and learning process. It helps to promote understanding of the concept and generalization by making lesson practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of the student at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his teaching and learning process moiré effective and more interesting to students. Bassey (2002) opinioned that Science is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching of geography in senior secondary schools adequately. According to Adeniyi (2000), the effect of instructional materials is to communicate more permanently, health related issues, and information is retained when supplemented with aid. Certainly instructional materials when carefully selected and skillfully used will make learning more effective. Therefore it becomes necessary to investigate the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of biology. However, man and animal possess the necessary abilities for learning. In other words, they are potential learners. Certain factors within and outside the learner determine how effectively each individual learn. Instructional materials can be in different forms such as textual and non­textual, the visual the auditory and audio­visual. Witwoth and Benson (2003), indicate that there is a need for research on the use and effectiveness of visual instructional materials in biology classroom that would enhances its teaching. With these concerns in mind and the educational development, The current study is carried out to address the issues associated with the effect of instructional materials in geography teaching­learning in Senior Secondary schools. Schools should provide enough instructional materials to enable teachers clarify their lesson. Adequate infrastructure facilities and condusive atmosphere for effective teaching­ learning of geography and retention of what is learnt. Schools should send their geography teachers to seminars and workshops in order to update their knowledge. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The effect of usinginstructional materials in geography teaching­ learning has been widely researched but many questions are still remains unanswered. The needs for exploring locally available materials as an alternative for the grossly unavailable materials in our schools, resourcefulness of the teacher must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment so that classroom teaching does not have to be retarded by lack of funds. Hence, government must strive to develop her local technology in all its ramifications, since geography is interested in providing solutions to man’s problems holistically. Many writers in geography have pointed out the grossly unavailability of instructional materials coupled with teachers attitude towards the utilization during classroom teaching­learning situations. Instructional materials not available in our schools, teachers are not improvising and/or reluctant in using them. Thus, this research attempt to Identify various secondary schools that required instructional materials in teaching geography, Identify instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school, Identify instructional materials available in senior secondary schools and Identify the effectiveness of instructional materials like chalkboard, funnel board, model real things, overhead projector, tape recorders, radio, television etc, in the performance of students in senior secondary schools, Yaba LCDA. 

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study to ensure the effectiveness of the use of effective teaching­learning of geography in senior secondary schools, Yaba LCDA. 

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