THE USE OF AUDIO- VISUAL TECHNOLOGY IN SCHOOL LIBRARIES AND STUDENTS‚Äô ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE:
A CASE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL EARLY LEARNING CENTER/DOROTHY INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL SCHOOL, ABA.
The age of digitalization and globalization has given unprecedented impetus to the development audio-visual technology. Audio-visual instructions in schools have therefore continued to accelerate students‚Äô understanding and appreciation of learning.
The value of audio- visual media is further underscored by their positive impact in school libraries, the libraries positive influence of the academic performance of students and the enhancement of teacher‚Äôs performance. Libraries are no doubt veritable instruments in a nation‚Äôs educational development.
The work therefore focuses on the use of audio-visual technology in school libraries, evaluated the effects of the use of audio-visual technology on the academic performance of students, and proffers solutions to problems hampering the effective application of audio-visual technology in our educational process.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† The global wave in the use of educational technology and its revolutionary effects is a major attraction to the choice of this topic for study. This project examined systematically the effects of the use of students in developing nation like Nigeria taking the case of a private primary cum secondary school library. The choice of private school is pertinent, as most government schools have no functional libraries. There is a growing consciousness among some private school owners on the relevance of functional school libraries.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† This project identified that an ideal library exists in International¬† Early Learning Centre / Dority International¬† Secondary School Aba in Abia State. A wide range of audio-visual materials and their equipment for operation abound in the library.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† However,¬† many a time materials and¬† equipment are not used in the library. Similarly, the students are unable to use the materials and equipment themselves. There is no convenient time for them to use the audio-visual materials and equipment.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Despite all these constraints, audiovisual technology is adequately used in the school in teaching and learning.
The results gathered indicated that students‚Äô academic performances are significantly improved after being taught using audiovisual technology.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Nowadays, knowledge is recorded in many physical forms. Before printing was invented, the papyrus, vellum, codex etc were used in recording human knowledge. With the invention of printing came books and other printing forms.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Recently, another form of media has come into prominence and that is the audio-visual media. Audio-visual may include graphic materials such as pictures, maps charts, sides etc, and finally multimedia packages such as motion pictures, video recording etc. There are¬† also information-bearing items like microforms,¬† computer readable data files and three- dimensional objects e.g. botanical specimens.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Audio-visuals have a variety of definitions. It is derived from a latin work meaning,¬†‚ÄúI hear‚ÄĚ.¬†In library and information science, it is replay of sound which we hear. This covers microforms, disc recorders, amplifiers, loud-speakers and their enclosures and any other techniques which are used to record or replay sound waves (Sincher, 1977).
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Audio-visuals mean something related to sound and visual or light. They include printed materials and their equipment.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Audio-visual materials can be categorized into audio materials¬† and visual materials ‚Äď Audio include Radio, lecture/talk, Audio tapes/cassette compact Disc, Telephone, etc. Visual materials can be identified by grouping than into two ways-2 dimensional and 3 dimensional; projectiles and Non projectuals. Visual materials can also be classified under graphics/photographic.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Audiovisuals are a combination of audio and visuals. They include TV programmes, multi-media packages, VCR, and even computer programmes. Some cannot be treated without the equipment for using them as progectors, TV receiver, microreader, Record player, photocopying machine, VTR laminating, 35mm camera with accessories etc. they can also exist in some other forms as slides of¬† computer screens, down loading of computer screens to create a simulation of a computer search, interactive video disc which requires the image storage medium, a TV monitor or computer screen, appropriate software, and a means of receiving inputs.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† They are usually not in book and so are not easily available. They are usually expensive because some of them require projectors, moreso, they are usually hard to process because they lack some of the normal bibliographic details. They, however, can be catalogued using the territorial areas. Finally, they are of easily accessible to users. They¬†¬† are used mainly as reference materials, and user are encouraged to borrow them.
1.1¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† This research work titled.¬† ‚ÄúThe use of Audio ‚Äď visual Technology in school libraries and students Academic performance‚ÄĚ is informed by the prevalent global wave in the use of educational Technology Vis the ‚Äď a vis the situation of nursery, primary and secondary schools in Nigeria. Being an experimental research, the study investigated the use of audio-visual material and equipment in a typical school library (International Early Learning Center/Dority International Secondary School Aba) and evaluated the impacts of the use of such technology on the academic performance of students.¬†¬†¬†
1.2¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†BRIEF PROFILE OF INTERNATIONAL EARLY LEARNING CENTER/DORITY INTERNATIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOL¬†¬†
IELC / DISS is a private nursery, primary and secondary school. IELC is for the secondary division. The school is owned by Mrs. Zovannah Onuma; an American woman married to Eng. E. Onumah from Abia State, Nigeria.
The nursery section was established in 1984 along faulks Road Aba while the primary section was opened in 1986. However, owing to rapid increase in population of school children, the school relocated to its permanent site in 1992 and it was in the same year that the DISS was opened.
The school is situated at no. 19-21 Umuodu Avenue Abayi Osisiona L. G. A,Abia State. It has a population of over 5,700 and more than 500 workforce including the non-teaching staff.
The school is aimed at graduationg students who are academically competent, constructively self-directed and who are oriented towards being positive, intelligent, sensitive and mature citizens of this country. The school vigorously pursues the attainment of these heart warming objectives.
The school has a library with a strong collection of both print and non-print materials. The library is headed by a professional librarian; a HND graduate in library science and assisted by a professional librarian also, there is also library security.
However, with the exponential increase in materials owing to the new policy of the school to purchase of daily basis a copy of daily newspaper and regular acquisition a of new materials, accommodation for the materials has become a problem. The library also needs more personnel to help in rendering effective service to users and to maintain orderliness and absolute quietude especially when students are using the library.
1.3¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† This research work although is carried out primarily to fulfill the basic school requirement for the award of Technical¬† Teacher Certificate (TTC) is also essentially set to achieve the following objectives:
a.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Identifying the various kinds of audio-visual learning aid used in school libraries and in IELC/DISS in particular.
b.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Examining the use of audio-visual materials and their media in the school
c.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Evaluating the impacts of the use or otherwise of the A/V materials on the academic performance of the students in the school under study.
d.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Discovering the constraints inherent in the use of A/V material and their equipment in school library and suggesting ways of redeeming them.
1.4¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research topic is chosen to investigate the impact of the use of A/V material sand equipment would have on pupils in nursery, primary and is IELC/DISS Abayi, Aba, Abia State.
The desire to carry out this work is consequent upon the new wave of educational technology sweeping across the globe. The study investigated how school libraries in Nigeria could brace up the challenges posed by education technology.
This study is particularly important to school managers and government as it would enable them to know the various A/V materials and media that can be used in school libraries and possibly come to realize the positive impacts the use of A/V technology has on students academic performance and hence take positive steps to develop our school libraries and position them to encompass these media in their holding so as to meet the challenges of this information age.
1.5¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†SCOPE OF THE STUDY
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† This study is limited to how A/V materials and equipment are used and assessed in IELC/DISS library for effective use on the academic performance of students. There is no comparative¬† analysis as it is purely an experimental research. It rather tested the impacts of the use of the A/V media on students of the school studies. The study covered all sections of the school-nursery section, only the upper nursery was studied. The reason for this being that pupils in the lower nursery might not be sensitive enough to answer the research questions.
1.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† What is the population of students surveyed?
¬†2.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Does a library exist in the school under study?
3.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Does the school use audio-visual materials and equipment in teaching the students and what is the range of the audio-visual materials in use?¬†
4.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Which places are designated for the use of the A/V materials and equipment?
5.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Can the students use the A/V resources on their own and what range of materials are they able to use unaided?
6.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† What reasons account most for the non-use of the A/V materials and equipment?
7.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Does teaching with audio-visuals facilitate understanding and in what areas is the¬† impact most felt?
8.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† How adequate is the use of the materials and what factors account for the inadequacy of use?
After a careful study of this research topic, the following assumptions were made and of which the research findings were expected to authenticate of disprove that:
(a)¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† There are varieties of audio-visual materials and equipment that can be used; in school libraries.
(b)¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† The use of A/V materials and equipment increases chances of students comprehension oft he subjects taught.
(c)¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Audio-visual materials and equipment are not effectively used in school libraries in Nigeria.
(d)¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Many pupils in nursery and primary school and students in secondary school cannot effectively use the A/V materials and equipment themselves.
(e)¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Certain factors such as finance, accommodation and skilled manpower affect the effective use of A/V materials and equipment in school libraries.
1.7¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†DEFINITION OF TERMS
To properly grasp the content to his work, some concepts used need operational definition. Some of the concepts are Audio-visual¬† technology, school libraries, students and academic performance.
Audio-Visual Technology in this context simply means audiovisual materials and their equipment of use. This term is usually inter changeably used with such terms or concept as educational technology, Audiovisual resources, educational material etc Educational technology according to Madu (2000) is a machinery or hardware of education of education or a highly structured approach to teach like programmed learning. The same Madu (2000) defined audiovisual as a combination of audio and visual materials which are used in the instructional or learning process to facilitate teaching and¬† the¬† Macmillan dictionary of information technology as a general term for non-book materials that can be viewed or listened¬† to such as films filmstrips, tapes, and overhead transparences. There are a wide categories of there materials and equipments as have been briefly high lightened in the preamble.
School libraries are libraries found in primary and secondary schools whose collection are simply for the young people. However the scope of school libraries have expanded and so is the opinion of experts in the field on what a modern school library should be. A school library is presently referred to as a multimedia Center, Media Resource Centre, School Media Centre, Instructional¬† Resource Centre etc. The variation in terminology not with standing. A school library is an information center located in a school environment for ht purpose of providing information services to support teaching and learning process of the school. To Iroha (1985) a school library is a collection of wide variety of library materials and resources housed in each school, centrally agonized by a staff professionally to offer services to students and teachers that will enrich and support the education programmes of the school.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† From the definitions given, certain features of a school library are discernible. It is an information center which contains both, books and non-book materials and is organized and¬† managed by a professionally trained librarian or qualified teacher librarian who uses available information resources to provide information¬† to support teaching and¬† learning activities of the teachers and students.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† The school library in this era of information revolution and has taken sweeping wave of globalization, has taken a new dimension in a media content, function and services.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† It is am media Resource Centre and hence, emphasizes the provision and utilization of both print and non-print and non-print media.
¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬† Essentially, a school library is aimed at achieving the following objectives.
a.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Support teaching and learning within the school system
b.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Promote the development of reading skills and encourage long term learning through reading.
c.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Stimulate research and independent study
d.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Provide opportunities for further reading and use classroom textbooks
e.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Provide material for recreation and encourage students to read for pleasure.
f.¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Provide pupils / students with vocational information leading to choice of a suitable career.¬†
1.7.3¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†¬†Students:¬†¬†In this project, students is a generic term used to designate school children in nursery, primary and secondary schools. They are those who are taught by the teachers and they constitute a greater number of users
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