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THE USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL TEACHING INSTRUMENTS ON TERTIARY STUDENTS ACADEMIC OUTCOME IN MEDICAL SCIENCES

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THE USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL TEACHING INSTRUMENTS ON TERTIARY STUDENTS ACADEMIC OUTCOME IN MEDICAL SCIENCES

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Everyone need some kind of education. Education is really important; without it, no one can live a happy life. The importance of teaching and learning in education cannot be overstated. To educate their pupils and encourage active learning, the teacher employs a variety of methods. With the passage of time, new approaches and techniques have entered the area of education, and teachers now employ a variety of tools to help students learn more effectively. Visual tools pique students' attention and make it easier for instructors to convey subjects. Visual aids are instructional tools that are utilized in the classroom to help students in their learning. "Visual aids" are "sensory items or pictures that begin, excite, and enhance learning," according to Burton. "Visual aids are any equipment that may be utilized to make the learning process more real, more accurate, and more dynamic," says S. James Kinder. Visual aids are tools that make a problem or a lesson simpler to grasp and remember (pictures, models, charts, maps, videos, slides, real objects etc.). These days, there are a plethora of visual aids accessible. These aids may be classified as follows: visual aids are those that make use of the sense of sight. Models, real things, charts, photos, maps, flannel board, flash cards, bulletin board, blackboard, slides, overhead projector, and so on are examples. The most prevalent of them are blackboard and chalk. When a class is assigned a course and the course materials (textbooks) include too many interactive expertise tasks, classroom teaching becomes more difficult. Most importantly, it has made integrating textbooks with audio visual aids as an auxiliary or supplemental resource for classroom course learning activities a typical occurrence. According to Fishman(2007), audio-visual aids are devices that have both aural and visual appeal, necessitating the use of both the eyes and ears (sight and hearing). Videotaped educational materials are an example of this. Audio-Visual Aids (AVA) are defined by Webster's dictionary (2001) as "training or educational resources aimed at both the senses of hearing and sight, including the use of films, records, pictures, and other similar items in the classroom for instructional purposes." Okafor (2003) described instructional materials as tools that help teachers be more successful in the classroom by invoking in pupils the same mental picture as the instructor, making words less unclear. According to Obara and Okoh (2005), instructional materials include everything a teacher uses to enrich, encourage, and support the teaching and learning of ideas in an interactive way. AVA is described by Dike (2003) as instructional materials that do not rely primarily on reading to transmit meaning, but instead use the senses of hearing and sight, as in audio and visual resources, or a combination of senses. Obara and Okoh (2005), in agreement with Dike (2003), claimed that AVA are communication tools that may be seen, heard, read, and controlled with the goal of improving the teaching-learning process. Additionally, according to Anzaku (2011), audio-visual materials are instructional tools that may be utilized to transmit meaning without relying just on spoken symbols or language. This means that although text books and reference materials are not audio-visual educational tools, an illustration in a book is. Audio-visual material is a sort of educational material that helps to clarify ideas or concepts in instructional programs, but it should not be considered a replacement for competent teaching (Moronkola, 2012). It's worth noting that audio-visual assistance in the learning process might sometimes take the shape of dramatization of an event or technique. Audio-Visual Aids, such as motion movies, need the use of specialist equipment to disclose their latent worth, but activities such as field excursions and some exhibits, for example, do not. Multimedia, lasers/holograms, DVDs, and video imaging are some of the applications that might be employed depending on the information to be delivered to the audience.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The approach utilized in teaching these ideas seems to have a critical role in ensuring that concepts in scientific topics, especially in medical sciences, are correctly learned and comprehended. Various explanations have been proposed to explain underachievement and a negative attitude toward medical science topics among tertiary students' academic performance (Ikpe, 2014). Nwagbo (1999) had previously said that medical scientific principles were not effectively comprehended by students, and that repeated low performance as well as a negative attitude toward science testifies to the fact that science education was not done correctly. Despite the benefits of audiovisual resources in teaching and learning, research in this field reveals that these tools are underutilized in the teaching and learning process. This might be due to a lack of access to these materials in the state's university libraries. More importantly, many instructors and students seem to be unaware of the audiovisual tools' capabilities and how to utilize them to accomplish their goals. Students may not recognize the importance of audiovisual tools in their studies as well. As a result, it is necessary to establish acceptable teaching approaches that will best meet the goal of scientific education, resulting in improved success and a more favorable attitude toward medical science topics. Students' attitudes toward medical sciences were also studied by Adesoji and Raimi (2004). They came to the conclusion that inadequate teaching instrument are one of the most important elements contributing to underachievement and a negative attitude towards medical science subjects.

1.3 Objective of the study

The primary objective of the study is as follows

1.        To evaluate types of audiovisual resources available in teaching medical sciences subject

2.        To examine  the level of availability of audiovisual resources in the teaching of medical sciences subjects.

3.        To find out the challenges users encounter in the use of A/V teaching instrument in teaching medical science subjects.

4.        To find out strategies for improvement in the use of audiovisual  in the teaching of medical science subject.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

1)        What types of audiovisual resources is available in teaching medical science subject?

2)        What is the level of availability of audiovisual resources in the teaching of medical sciences subjects?

3)        What are the challenges users encounter in the use of A/V teaching instrument in teaching medical science subjects?

4)        What are the strategies for improvement in the use of audiovisual  in the teaching of medical science subject?

1.5 Significance of the study

This study focuses on the use of audio visual teaching instrument on tertiary student academic outcome. Hence this study will be significant as the government will be exposed to the need of audiovisual resources in university libraries, thus, they will empower the products of our educational system to fit well into the modern industrial system through acquisition of digital literacy by the use of audiovisual resources, they will therefore provide enough funds to parent organization of the libraries in order to meet the financial demand of A/V resources for effective teaching and learning .

The study will be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6 Scope of the study

This study will evaluate types of audiovisual resources available in teaching medical sciences subject. This study will also, examine  the level of availability of audiovisual resources in the teaching of medical sciences subjects. This study will further find out the challenges users encounter in the use of A/V teaching instrument in teaching medical science subjects. Lastly, the study will find out strategies for improvement in the use of audiovisual  in the teaching of medical science subject. Hence the study will be delimited to Obafemi Awolowo University, Osun state.

1.7 Limitation of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

 just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by  the researcher ,in getting relevant materials  and  in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.8       Definition of terms

Audio-visual teaching instrument: any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete and effective, more realistic and dynamic can be considered audio visual .

Academic outcomes: academic outcomes that indicate the extent to which a student has achieved their learning goals.



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