THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS GENDER AND THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Gender disparities in educational attainment have become a major source of concern for educational experts in recent years. Boys are less likely than girls to attend college and earn a bachelor's degree. Meanwhile, female students remain underrepresented in disciplines such as engineering and computer science. One popular, though divisive, response to these trends has been a revived campaign for single-sex schooling — an endeavor that has garnered support across party lines (Dee, 2006).
Regardless of scholastic subject, guys are two to three times more likely than girls to be perceived as disruptive, inattentive, and unlikely to do their assignments, according to Dee (2006). However, how boys and girls regard academic courses varies significantly between subjects, mirroring the gender disparities in subject test performance. For example, girls are more likely to report being hesitant to ask questions in Mathematics, Science, and Social Sciences than boys are. Additionally, they are less likely to look forward to these sessions and view them as beneficial to their future. Meanwhile, guys have more unfavorable attitudes toward English instruction than girls do.
While boys and girls may display distinct behaviors and preferences, Dee (2006) emphasized that this is not the same as having a unique experience due to the teacher's gender. Thus, the important issue is: Is there any evidence that teachers relate better to pupils with whom they have a gender or vice versa? According to Dee (2006), substantial trends may be discerned within the National Educational Longitudinal Studies (NELS) data survey conducted in the United States. He found that when a female teacher leads a class, boys are more likely to be perceived as disruptive, but girls are perceived as less disruptive or inattentive. Additionally, when taught by a man, girls are more likely to say that they disliked the topic, believe it is irrelevant to their future, or are reluctant to ask questions. According to Dee, the aforesaid scenario is most pronounced in Scientific, where students claim that female science professors are considerably more efficient at encouraging females' interest in certain fields of study.
Additionally, when taught by an opposite gender teacher, boys exhibit lower favorable emotions to their academic topic. Boys, in particular, are more likely to say that they dislike the topic when taught by a female teacher (i.e. loose interest in the subject or find it less intriguing).
Additionally, gender distinctions are evident from birth, and children are indoctrinated into proper sex-type occupations at an early age (Azikiwe 1993). Gender is defined by the United Nations (UN) as "Man and Woman" at the Fourth World Conference on Women (F.M.C.W.) 1996 in Beijing, China, and this definition applies to this study. Green (1979) demonstrates that culture and tradition have allocated jobs to males and females in society, thereby confining each sex to regions deemed exclusively for their use. For example, traditionally, women were expected to work in fields such as nursing and education.
Additionally, in Nigeria's pre-colonial traditional civilization prior to the introduction of western education, indigenous education is polarized between sexes according to their future positions in society.
Fafunwa (1974) elucidates this pattern by stating that whereas males received severe training on the farm under their fathers' supervision, girls received training at home in child care, food preparation, and so on under the tight supervision of their mothers. Not long ago, during the era of official western education in Nigeria, a distinction existed between the types of occupations undertaken by boys and females, maybe as a result of carryover effects. Emeyeonu (1994) accurately articulated this circumstance by noting that girls should not pursue careers in engineering, law, or medicine but rather in teaching and nursing. He said, "A female student applying to study mechanical engineering is regarded as an outlier and an exception to the role, and may need to have her brain tested." Girls were expected to pursue careers in the arts, education, and home economics. Unfortunately, the majority of young Nigerian females seeking to higher education have bought into this myth and have approached their job choices with trepidation and shyness".
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The majority of proponents of single-sex schools and classrooms emphasized not just the impact of gender on student relationships, but also the importance of increasing the proportion of kids who have the same gender instructor (Krieg, 2005).
Additionally, researchers such as Meece (1987), Hopf & Hatzichristou (1999), Rodriguez (2002), and Etaugh & Hughes (1975) have discovered that teachers interact differently with students of the same gender than with students of the opposite gender, and (ii) a teacher's perception of a student's characteristics and abilities varies significantly by gender. According to Krieg (2005), several research have discovered that male students profit from the volume and quality of engagement they receive from professors of both genders at the expense of female students. As a result, the following issues arise: Is there a link between the gender of teachers and their approach toward teaching? What link exists between the gender of teachers and the amount of class and home work assigned to students? Is there a correlation between the gender of teachers and their students' academic performance? Thus, this study seeks to address the aforementioned questions by evaluating the relationship between instructors' gender and students' academic performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad aim of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers gender and the academic performance of students in secondary schools. Specifically, but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:
i. To find out whether there is a link between the gender of teachers and their approach toward teaching.
ii. To find out whether there is a correlation between the gender of teachers and their students' academic performance.
iii. To examine examine whether gender of teachers affects their relationship with students.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following null hypotheses will be used to test the effectiveness of this study:
Ho1: There is no link between the gender of teachers and their approach toward teaching.
Ho2: There is no correlation between the gender of teachers and their students' academic performance.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is notable as an addition to knowledge because it articulates the link between teacher-gender differential influence on teacher-student relationships and the impact of this relationship on students' academic achievement.
The study will also serve as a reference source for academics and students conducting research on the same or a related issue in different universities.
Gender analysts will benefit from this work. Additionally, it will benefit counselors, trainers and psychologists. Additionally, it will benefit instructors, parents, and students.
Finally, the findings of this study will serve as a valuable resource for government, educational planners and policymakers, and educational administrators, among others, when making judgments on teacher recruitment for boys' or girls' schools.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Broadly, this study’s scope is on the relationship between teachers gender and the academic performance of students in secondary schools. Precisely, this is focused on finding out whether there is a link between the gender of teachers and their approach toward teaching, finding out whether there is a correlation between the gender of teachers and their students' academic performance and examining examine whether gender of teachers affects their relationship with students.
Teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Bali LGA of Taraba State will be the respondents for the survey of this study.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse's nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Teachers: A teacher, also called a schoolteacher or formally an educator, is a person who helps students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone.
Gender: Either of the two sexes (male and female), especially when considered with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones.
Academic performance: The extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement.