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THE INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICES ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

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THE INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICES ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Over the years, secondary school education has been the engine room for acquiring knowledge. This is a time when students are made to understand or learn about other subjects that determine the course of study which one would want to engage in higher education after primary school as opined by Melvin (2015). Where it is placed today in the educational system depicts its relevance. Schwarzeller (2016) stated that a school is regarded as that which gives an outside view of what needs to happen in order for change to occur and also an equal opportunity for building up ones strengths and talents. In Nigeria, educational reforms always place secondary schools in the fore front. To be precise, it is seen as a strong avenue for the acquisition of skill, experience and knowledge cum wide range of vocational prospects for youths (Ezekwesili, 2006). This is a system that is geared towards strengthening secondary school education and providing students with more practical knowledge that can make them strong and stand on their own after graduation. Individual differences exist among people which invariably has an effect on the personality of the individuals and what they are capable of doing (Kutara, 2017). Differences in the individual growth rate, intellect, school achievement, sex usually set the pace where students look at themselves in career or vocations orientation. The home, school, mosque, church and the community are very vital factors in the students’ environment, thereby, having an effect or impact in their choice of career or vocation (Olawanle & Obayemi, 2010) Factors such as parental expectation, big salary, societal prestige, personal security, cordial relationship with friends, changes for advancement as well as the nature of the work itself have directly or indirectly caused or made most students who are almost graduating from secondary schools into making unrealistic career choice.

Counselling simply means to give advice to (a person) on social or personal problems, especially professionally and the process of assisting and guiding clients, especially by a trained person on a professional basis, to resolve especially personal, social, or psychological problems and difficulties. Counseling is a collaborative process that involves the development of a confidential professional relationship that focuses on personal problems. The objective of counselling is to help you clarify issues, gain insight into your feelings and thoughts and deal effectively with problems. The major aim of guidance counselling service is to encourage students' academic, social, emotional and personal development. To reach this aim, it helps students get to know themselves better and find effective solutions to their daily problems. The guidance and counselling services in the school refers to the range of interventions provided to students to enable them to make choices in the key areas of their personal/social lives, education and career. Gesinde (2011) opined that the school guidance services also include educational development services. Many people will at some point in their lives, find themselves in the role of a counsellor without having a true understanding of the concept of counselling or what the role of the professional counsellor entails.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Poor academic performances among secondary school students, gives concern, this has a negative inflection on the various programmes. The main concern is the role of guidance and counseling in facilitating the academic performance of secondary school students. Little information is available on the extent to which guidance and counseling has been used to assist in raising the academic performance of secondary school students. The problem of this study therefore is to determine the influence of guidance and counseling on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of this study is to examine the influence of guidance and counseling services on students academic performance. Specific objectives of this study are:

i.          To find out the extent guidance and counselling is carried out in secondary schools.

ii.        To determine the types of guidance and counselling carried out in secondary schools.

iii.      To determine whether guidance and counselling influences students academic performance.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

i.          To what extent is guidance and counselling carried out in secondary schools?

ii.        What are the types of guidance and counselling carried out in secondary schools?

iii.      Does guidance and counselling influence students academic performance?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The finding of the study world shed light to educational stakeholders about the significance of guidance and counseling in upholding and promoting the academic performance of students. Some school Administrators in general would appreciate the importance of guidance performance among students and also encourage them to increase or put more effort for professionalism.

The students will also benefits from the study by improving on their academic performance that well justify the commitments of huge portion of the nation’s scare resources to secondary education and also have focus in life and achieve their aims and objectives in life. It will be also, useful to the classroom teachers and counselors, to improve in his guidance and counseling services to the students.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study focuses on the influence of guidance and counseling services on students academic performance. Specifically, this study focuses on finding out the extent guidance and counselling is carried out in secondary schools, determining the types of guidance and counselling carried out in secondary schools and determining whether guidance and counselling affects students academic performance.

Counselors and students in selected secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan, Akwa Ibom State will serve as enrolled participants for this study.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Guidance and counseling: These terms are used in the study to refer to counseling activities in schools, organized by professional schools counselors.

Academic Performance: This is used in the study to refer the scores obtained by the student’s in achievement test on Mathematics, English Studies and basic Sciences.



This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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