The impact of teaching aids on student's academic performance in basic science in secondary schools in oredo LGA
This study was carried out to examine the Impact of Teaching Aids on Student's Academic Performance in Basic Science in Secondary Schools In Oredo LGA. Specifically, the study determined the effect of teaching aids on students’ academic performance in Basic Science, determined if there is any difference in the academic performance of students taught Basic Science using teaching aids with those taught without it and, examined the types of teaching aids used in the teaching of Basic Science in Secondary Schools. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 141 responses were validated from the survey. The study adopted the Ausubel’s (1963) meaningful learning theory. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings on the effects of teaching aids on students’ academic performance in Basic Science include easy understanding of concepts, enhances students motivation for learning and, Saves time in lesson delivery. Furthermore, the findings revealed that subject mastery on the part of the teachers influence student understanding of social studies. The findings further revealed that there is difference on the academic performance of students taught Basic Science using teaching aids with those taught without it. The study recommends that teachers should use instructional methods best suited in teaching. This will help in the easy understanding by students thus boosting academic performance.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Science is the bedrock upon which the bulk of present day technological breakthrough is built. Today, nation all over the world, including Nigeria, are striving hard to develop scientifically and technologically, since the world is becoming scientific and all proper functioning of lives depends greatly on science. Science education is an important tool for national growth and development. The economic and political strength of a nation is always assessed in terms of her achievement in science and technology (Anderson, 2002).
Basic Science, formerly known as Integrated Science, is a subject taught in Lower, middle and upper Basic Education levels i.e. primary and junior secondary schools. It has occupied a very important position in the school curriculum and is made a core subject .In fact, there is so much emphasis on science, and science related subjects at all levels of education emphasizing the need for scientific thinking and application among the students, in which Basic Science is the foundation. Science education plays a vital role in the lives of individuals and the development of a nation scientifically and technologically (Anderson, 2002).
It is widely and generally acknowledged that the gateway to survival of a nation is through science education. It has been a prerequisite subject for offering most science oriented courses in the senior secondary schools and tertiary institutions and this calls for the need in teaching it effectively. In order to make our citizens show interest in science education, Nigerian government came up with a policy that 60% of the students seeking admission into the nations universities, polytechnics and colleges of education should be admitted for science oriented courses, while 40% of the students should be considered for arts and social science courses (Asikhia, 2010).
The Nigerian integrated science project has been concerned with improving science at the junior secondary level in the country .It presents science as the process of interpretation, manipulation and control of pupils environment. Now called Basic Science, the subject is now taught in primary and junior secondary schools (JSS) in Nigeria following the Universal Basic Education Scheme (UBE) launched in 1999 due to the change in educational system i.e. from 6-3-3-4 to 9-3-4 system. The Nigeria Integrated Science project books have been revised and now cover the three years of junior secondary school (Ezegbe, & Nwaubani, 2009).
Basic Science is one of the core subjects at the junior secondary school in the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme. According to FRN (2013), the basic education which shall be 9 years duration comprising of six years of primary and three years of junior secondary education shall be free and compulsory. Based on the National Policy on Education (FRN 2013), the teaching of Basic science from the pre- secondary (lower basic) to the junior secondary school (upper basic) levels is intended to achieve the following aims and objectives which are: To Inculcate in the learners the spirit of inquiry and creativity through exploration of nature and local environment by observation; Laying sound basic foundation for scientific innovation and reflective thinking; To develop in the child the ability to adapt to the child changing environment through Basic Science process skills; including observation, manipulating, classifying, communicating, inferring, hypotheses, interpreting data and formulating models; Functional knowledge of science concept and principles to Explain simple and natural phenomena and to provide the child with basic tools for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and craft of the locality. Develop self-confidence and self –reliance through problems solving activities in science. From the above guiding principles, Basic Science course is to be taught beginning with the understanding of the meaning of science and how the scientists work, since it is an activity- oriented programme Ezema, & Ekere, 2008).
The poor academic performance of students in Basic Science in junior secondary is attributed to many factors such as the constant use of the lecture teaching methods, poor laboratory facilities, poor retention ability of students, inadequate number of learning facilities in managing large classes among others (Iweka, 2006). Although teaching materials or instructional materials could facilitate meaningful learning in Basic Science, it is rarely used, whereas this method is considered as a method of teaching for improving cognition. A good deal of expected learning outcomes cannot be realized in Basic Science at upper Basic Schools as a result of non-availability of teaching materials as well as lack of effective utilization of appropriate teaching materials (Maduabum, 1995). There has been poor performance of Basic Science students in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSCE). The Basic Science chief examiners reports have in recent years indicated a steady decline in candidate performance in Basic Science at JSCE, 2013.
Teaching materials refer to those equipment, tools and materials that a teacher uses to illustrate, emphasize and explain a lesson, making the lesson clear to the students. Teaching materials according to Isiugo-Abanihe, Long, & Ibiene, (2010) are those materials, which a teacher uses or manipulates in the process of his teaching in order to enhance teaching-learning process. Ibe, & Nwosu, (2003) described teaching materials as teaching materials used by the teacher to pass information to students in real life situation. These equipment and materials include, object that are familiar to students and can be obtained locally to the sophisticated industrial product which cannot be obtained locally such as microscope, glass wares, tripod stand, herbarium etc. The teaching of Basic Science demands the use of teaching aids materials or media and this helps to bring effective instructions, which arouses and sustains the interest of the learners (Leghara and Okafor, 2006). This is because when the learners come face to face with teacher through the proper use of teaching materials, lesson is more likely to be effective. Instructional materials are meant to improve and supplement, not to replace the teacher. No matter how good instructional materials are, they should not substitute the teacher.
The use of teaching aids or materials in science teaching will enable the learner to acquire problem solving skills and positive attitude, acquire scientific appreciation and interest and to develop functional knowledge and manipulative skills. In a situation where standard instructional materials are inadequate, the teacher could improvise. Researchers such as Kurlthau, (2007) reported that there was inadequate resources for the teaching of Basic Science in junior secondary school in Nigeria. They further stated that where there were little resource or not at all, they are not usually in good conditions while the few that are in good conditions were not enough to go round those that needed them.
The reason for using teaching aids or materials in teaching upper Basic Science is to help in bringing about effective teaching and learning; arousing and holding attention of the learners and help in perception and retention of information or knowledge among our learners. Kurlthau, (2007) was of the opinion that the use of both standard and improvised instructional resources would make discovered facts glue firmly to the memory of the students. Today advances in technology have made it possible to minimize the teacher talking and at the same time, making the message clearer, more interesting and easier for the learner to assimilate.
Therefore, the study seeks to find out the Impact of Teaching Aids on Student's Academic Performance in Basic Science in Secondary Schools In Oredo LGA.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The importance of teaching materials in teaching and learning of Basic Science in schools cannot be over-emphasized. So many efforts have been made to improve the poor performance in Basic Science in general, yet there is persistent failure in the subject which could be due to lack of use of teaching materials. The declining rate of the performance of upper Basic Science students is a problem of serious concern to science educators, educationist and examination bodies Nwagbo, (1999). Student’s performance in Basic Science in junior school certificate examination over the years showed that as the enrolment increases, the level of passes is not encouraging, therefore something need to be done to improve the performance.
In the same vein, Nwosu, (2003) advanced some problems including lack of practical skills and inadequate knowledge of the subject matter. Many teachers think used of teaching materials is difficult, time consuming and fund depleting. Nnachi, (2007) identify poor method of teaching and improper use of teaching materials as being the cause of poor performance. Nnachi, (2007) observed that many students experience difficulty in science concepts and courses. This was as a result of constant use of lecture method without using teaching materials. According to the chief examination report (2013) of junior school certificate examinations reported lack of qualified and incompetent science teachers, the use of only lecture methods of instruction, inability to use teaching materials among others are the causes of declining of the performance in Basic science students. Teachers’ neglect of the use of teaching materials has reduced student’s motivation as far as learning is concerned. Thus, without solving the problems of inadequate use of teaching materials the persistent under-performance and retention ability in Basic science will continue.
It is in the light of the above statement this research will be set out to investigate the Impact of Teaching Aids on Student's Academic Performance in Basic Science in Secondary Schools In Oredo LGA.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad purpose of this study is to investigate the Impact of Teaching Aids on Student's Academic Performance in Basic Science in Secondary Schools In Oredo LGA. Specifically, the study sought to:-
Determine the effect of teaching aids on students’ academic performance in Basic Science.
Determine if there is any difference in the academic performance of students taught Basic Science using teaching aids with those taught without it.
Examine the types of teaching aids used in the teaching of Basic Science in Secondary Schools
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
What are the effect of teaching aids on students’ academic performance in Basic Science?
Is there any difference in the academic performance of students taught Basic Science using teaching aids with those taught without it?
What are the types of teaching aids used in the teaching of Basic Science in Secondary Schools?
The following hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught Basic Science using teaching aids with those taught without it.
Ho2: There is a significant difference in the academic performance of students taught Basic Science using teaching aids with those taught without it.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of the study will uplift the standard of Basic Science Education in the following ways;
Basic Science Teachers: It will help them to understand and develop the positive attitude of using teaching materials in the process of teaching-learning in all subjects in large class size.
Basic Science Students: It will give opportunity and training for students on how to interact positively and encourage individual student's best performance in Basic Science. It is therefore, hoped that when students are successful in learning through enriched improvised and standard teaching materials, they will look at Basic science with a positive attitude. Also it will help in motivating the students to be inquisitive in what to learn using materials.
Policy Makers: The study will educate the policy makers on the significance and relevance of using teaching materials in teaching-learning process, so that they can help in making them available and to reach the teachers and also enforce their use in the classroom.
Curriculum Planners: The study will motivate the curriculum planners to include and enforce the use of teaching materials by teachers as the implementers of the curriculum.
Administrators: The study will provide information about the reality of educational practice. This result can be used as reference point in making further educational practices by Science Education.
Professional Associations: such as the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) and Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) can carry out seminars, workshops and research to help implement and communicate the result of the study to teachers to use as part of their teaching materials.