the factors responsible for
students academic performance in public secondary school
1.1 Background of the
as the key to development has the capacity to upgrade teaching effectiveness as
well as learning efficiency among learners. Efforts by have being made by school
administrators to improve the performance of Public secondary school students.
The school environment, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical
workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching
methods, peers, etc are variables that affect students’ academic achievement
(Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000). Hence, the school environment remains
an important area that has to studied and well managed to enhance students’
According to Jam (2009) academic performance is the ability to
study and remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally
or on paper. In other words, academic performance refers to how students deal
with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given
to them by their teachers. Academic
performance generally refers to how well a student is accomplishing his or her
tasks or studies. There are quite a number of factors that determine the level
and quality of students' academic performance. (Scottk, 2002).
According to Hussain
(2006) secondary school students in public schools often come from economically
poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing
emotional disturbance among their children. This singular factor has caused
serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.
Achievement is generally a pedagogical
terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and
which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with
numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National
Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) has identified school
achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core
or elective subjects.
abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on
students academic achievement. all factors or variables tend to focus on poor
study habit while the effects are yet to be fully accessed on the nations
issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much
concern to the government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The
quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the
performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the
school environment (Ajao 2001). The issue of poor academic performance of
students in Nigeria has been of much concern to all and sundry. The problem is
so much that it has led to the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in
Delta State and Nigeria at large. The quality of education depends on the
teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties. Over time pupils’
academic performance in both internal and external examinations had been used
to determine excellence in teachers and teaching (Ajao 2001). Teachers have
been shown to have an important influence on students’ academic achievement and
they also play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is
ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based
on practice during interaction with the students (Afe 2001). Both teaching and
learning depends on teachers: no wonder an effective teacher has been conceptualized
as one who produces desired results in the course of his duty as a teacher
(Uchefuna 2001). Considering governments’ huge investment in public education,
its output in terms of quality of students have been observed to be unequal
with government expenditure.
In Nigeria, there are
so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and
efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental
influence as a major factor in the development of students studying habit. In
the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most
children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made
some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper
discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.
of the problem
The increasing nature
of poor academic performance of public secondary school students especially in
external examinations like WAEC or JAMB, tend to shift the blame on the
teaching methodology adopted by the teachers and lack of fund from the
government to provide quality textbooks. However, these might not be the main
reasons why students perform poorly in examinations. It is clear from all
indications that most secondary school students have poor study habit which
might lead to poor academic performance.
it is yet to gather adequate research
evidence to prove that it is a key factor on why students fail. Emphasizing the
importance of school environment to students academic performance, Oluchukwu,
(2000) asserted school environment is an essential aspect of educational
planning. The scholar went further to explain that unless schools are well
suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and
maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.
The high levels of students’ academic performance
may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries,
technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. However,
little is known on the impact of school environment on students’ academic
performance in an urban city like Rivers State. It was agreed that inadequate provision of equipment in
public secondary school. It is based on the above stated problems that the
study on assessment of factors responsible for students academic performance in
public secondary schools became necessary for investigation.
of the Study
The major purpose of this study
was to assess the factors responsible for students academic performance in
public secondary school. Specifically the study is:
1. To examine the factors Responsible for student’s academic
performance in public Secondary Schools.
i. To examine the influence of human resources
on students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
ii. To determine the influence of financial
resources on students' academic performance in secondary schools.
iii. To establish the influence of physical
resources on students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
iv. To determine how learning techniques
influence the students' academic performance in secondary schools.
v. To examine the challenges for student’s academic performance in
Public Secondary Schools.
The study was guided on
the following research questions.
i. What is the influence of human resources on
students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
ii. How does a financial resource influence the
students' academic performance in public secondary schools?
iii. To what extent does physical resource
influence students’ academic performance in public secondary schools?
iv. How does learning techniques influence the
students' academic performance in secondary schools?
v. What are the challenges that affect student’s academic
performance in Public Secondary Schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses guided the study:
1. There is no significant relationship between the factors
Responsible for student’s academic performance in public Secondary Schools.
2. There is no significant relationship between the challenges for
student’s academic performance in Public Secondary Schools.
of the Study
This study will be used to students researchers,
scholars, educationists who use it for further studies. It is hoped that this
study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators
to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic
goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those
factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’
educational outcomes in school. This study provides a valuable reference for
other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic
performance of student in secondary school. It will serve as resource materials
for others who want to carry out research in related field.
Scope of the Study
research work focuses on the factors responsible for students academic performance
in public secondary school in Rivers State. This research work covers all
public secondary schools students in Rivers State.
Definition of terms
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research