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THE EFFECT OF PARENTS MOTIVATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at investigating the effects of parents’ motivation and the academic performance of senior secondary school student. . To guide the study, four objectives of the study,four research questions and four research hypotheses were formulated. In conducting this research, survey research setting was adopted to enable the researcher to collect data from primary source using a quantitative method from a pool of respondents in the stipulated sample size, as data will be coded and inputted for computation and used to analyse the hypothesis for testing and validation. The population of the study consists five senior Secondary students in yaba local government areas in Yaba Education Zone. The five secondary schools in the zone have a population of two hundred and forty eight ,senior secondary students.  The research instrument was questionnaire on the effects of parents’ motivation and the academic performance of senior secondary school student, designed by the researcher and validated by experts. The reliability of the instrument was established using Crunbach alpha method. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS while chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.  Students from educated parents achieve more than those from uneducated parents in academics; students from high-income status parents enjoy considerable advantage in academic achievement than students of low income status parents because their parents were able to afford necessary materials and equipment needed for effective learning in the school; parental level of motivation also influenced students’ academic achievement because motivation and reward served as a form of reinforcement for children’s learning at school. Based on these findings, the study recommended among others that parents should diversify their sources of income to be able to provide fund for their children’s schooling. Parents should equally realize the importance of using rewards and other measures to motivate their children.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education is the best legacy parents can give to their children. The development of the nation starts from the family. When the family succeeds in teaching and impacting good values in their children, the country becomes a better place to live. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resource. Formal education is the demonstration of such desires to effectively and efficiently build a sound and strong economy. Numerous factors have been identified in various research studies to be responsible for the continuous declining of our educational system. Various factors such as classroom size, poor teacher-student ratio, in-adequate instructional materials, attitude of teachers towards work and lack of seriousness in part of students.

With the availability of more qualified teachers, improved technology and facilities for teaching and learning, educational system in Nigeria is still losing it values.Motivation for this study is based on the fact that some students are exceptionally good in their work, while some extremely bad. When such variations in scores are traced it is more often discovered that family background is a major contributory factor. It is therefore important that the levels of such contributions and the influence they have on children be examined so that useful suggestions to parents, teachers, educational planners and government could be made. Orhungur (2010) asserts that the cultural background of the family is determined to a large extent by its socio-economic background. As the child grows up moves out to the interest wider society his/her interaction with it and perception of it are largely determined from her earlier, experiences at home. The family setting and its socializing influence mould the personality of the child. Nigeria, for instance is a society with diverse ethnic groups with various cultural background in areas like family size, occupation and in extreme cases, religion. These factors pose their own restrictions on educational upbringing of children. The social sitting or mode of settlement of the family and extended family system may equally influence the academic performance of a child and by extension, their educational upbringing. Motivation is most need in order to perform more efficiently in their area of endeavor. When certain factors are eminent in a child’s family background, it is clear that the child will be motivated and driven towards high academic goal. Denga (2006) in Eyake (2007) advised that praises, incentives, recommendations and other forms of reward system should be employed as motivational factors to stimulate students to higher achievements. It is likely that the much a child achieves during his school days is largely dependent on the kind of family to which he/ she belongs. For instance, a child whose parents take a great deal of interest in what he/ she does at school and give him / her necessary support by providing all the required books and finances needed has a great advantage over a child whose parents do not give him this kind of incentives and encouragements. More so, students’ attitudes to learning and educational performances are shaped by the kind of stimuli offered to them by their various environments. This can be considered in terms of the type of family, the home, parental social orientation, educational level, occupation to mention but a few. It is therefore, evident that students’ performance is contingent on the stimulus the home offers.Educational upbringing is not unconnected with the family influence of a child. Individual members of the family serve as a model to the child as he/ she copies from each of them. Eyake (2007) quoted. Adeyemo (2007) if the house fails to provide the child with the necessary equipments to fit him/ her into his proper place in the society and guided properly for his/ her future career, then the child is damaged. An analysis of the percentage of secondary school dropout today entails that such students are usually from broken homes, wiring polygamous family or with other socially related problems.The agrarian and large families have accounted for the polygamous life of people. The large the size of the family, the more economic and other social responsibilities the parents bring upon themselves. And more often than not, the educational performance of students from such family suffer serious setback. This is because such parents might not be able to afford the cost funding education for the children.Other factors may affect the education performance of students like separation on grounds of different working station, divorce or even natural death can bring adverse effect on the growth and development of a child.

Furthermore, economic position of parents is one of major factors that can influence greatly the educational upbringing of a child. In most families, either or none of parents may be earning income sufficient enough to sustain the family, faced with malnutrition and other emotional and psychological effects, the mental development of the child  would be greatly retarded. Orhunger (2005) adds that a low income family with plenty of feeding problems may produce children who physical and mental development poses real challenges to the schools effort at optimum development of the child.

In the contemporary world, improvement in pupil’s/students’ academic performance is recognized as the foremost objectives of education. Educational activities are regarded towards ensuring that student achieve mastery of educational goals. In ensuring that every child partake in schooling,, the National Policy on education enacted a law that primary educations should be tuition free, universal and compulsory (be that as it was, when a child leaves school intermittently, it could be that the parent motivation on the academic performance of the child is lag and lacking (Ugochi, 2014), and as such the parent must endeavor to motivate the child so as to enhance and boost his/her academic weakness.

According to Muola (2010), student who are motivated are likely to perform well in their examination. Salvin (2006) cited in Ugochi (2014) posited that motivation is what get one going, and determine where one is to go. It is something which prompt, compel, and energizes an individual to act or behave in a particular manner at a particular time attaining some specific goal or purpose.Based on this, motivation could be seen as the force that initiate guide and maintains goal-oriented behavior such as learning, in order to achieve academically. Motivation is crucial to students’ academic success at any age because children form self-concept, values and belief about their abilities at a young age and the development of early academic motivation has significant implication for later academic performance and career (Slavin, 2006).In school both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has been found to be indispensible in children’s’ academic performance (Mangal, 2008). Students’ academic motivation is manifested in different motivational level which could be high, moderate or low. A high motivated student tend to be more hyper-active in learning and over anxious in the learning environment; low motivated students could be disruptive, and as a result is more likely to perform poorly which may lead to truancy and school dropout. Moderate increase in motivation gives moderate increase in performance, keep the students preserving on a task until some result is achieved (Ngwoke, 2004).

Academic performance of students is of utmost importance to parents, educators, concerned Nigerians and government. Academic performance simple refers to as accomplishing what ever academic goals one set for him/herself. Thus, Davidson institute (2004) sees academic achievement which refers to as a measure of quality of success one has in the mastery of knowledge, skills & understanding. It is also the attainment of a standard excellence (Umeano 2010). Academic performance is the extent to which students make success in academic work. Answer Corporation (2010) defined academic performance as the degree or extent of acquiring excellence in the academic towards achieving academic achievement. Academic performance cannot be divorced from academic achievement as they are both entwined and intertwined which can hardly be separated from each other.

From all said, it has been shown by various studies that most of the students who are successful, great achievers, and well adjust came from the families where sustaining, wholesome relationship and parental care and motivation towards the child’s academic performance exist.This study is tend to show the implication of parents motivation and how it has a derivative effect on the academic excellence, performance and achievement of the student.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The academic performance of secondary school students in recent time has been a source of concern to all. Parents, teachers, counsellors etc. have expressed considerable concern about the deteriorating student’s performance. This poor academic performance of pupils has continue to raise its ugly head despite the measure put in place by the Federal Government in ensuring effective teaching and learning. Common concern and complain of Secondary School teachers have been on poor academic performance and low attention span arising from a steady decline on students motivation and interactive learning. As a result, Secondary School students get involved in problem behavior such as dropping out of school, truancy, bully and social receptiveness.

These disruptive behavior are traceable to what transpires between the parents and their children at home. Thus, It seems that parent-child relation are faulty and that the parent give no damn on the academic status and performance of the students which has extensively cripple the students’ academic performance and even lead to loss of self-concept. The parents motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic on the student academic were lost and lust.

The gap in performance between students and academic excellence constitute a great source of worry and serious concern as well as discomfiture to both parents, schools mangers, policy makers and various governments responsible for the education of students’ in secondary school schools.Experience has shown that among the secondary school students’ there exist some differences which influence students’ academic performance, such as some students’ being able to pay their school fees promptly, while  others  were often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some students have  problem with the provision of school uniform but others do not. Likewise, some students were motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books, others were not, where as some students’ come to school properly feed, others not. One then wonders whether influence of family background had played a in these issues.                                       
In the light of this, the main problem of this search is to find out if there exist in Lagos metropolis a relationship between socio-economic status of parents and students’ academic performance.This research work tends to proffer solution on how parents should motivate their children towards academic excellence.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this research is to find or showcase the effect, if at all, of how parent motivation will tell on the academic performance of the student as well as;

·         Examine the role parent played in the student’s academic performance.

·         Find out how parent motivation could influence their children’s academic performance

  • To find out if social-economic status of parents influence their students’ academic performance.
  • To investigate the relationships between students’ academic performance and their family background characteristics.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In order to achieve the derived objectives, the following research questions were raised;

(i) Does the role of parent played have an effect on student’s academic performance?

(ii) To what extent does parent motivation influence children’s academic performance?

(iii) Does social-economic status of parents influence their students’ academic performance?

(v) What is the relationship between students’ academic performance and their family background characteristics?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: There is no significant relationship between the role parent played and effect on student’s academic performance.

H1: There is significant relationship between the role parent played and effect on student’s academic performance.

H0: There is no significant relationship between parent motivation influence and children’s academic performance.

H2: There is significant relationship between parent motivation influence and children’s academic performance.

H0: There is no significant relationship between social-economic status of parents and their students’ academic performance.

H3: There is significant relationship between social-economic status of parents and their students’ academic performance.

H0: There is no significant relationship between students’ academic performance and their family background characteristics.

H4: There is no significant relationship between students’ academic performance and their family background characteristics.

1.6: SIGNIFANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this research work in the educational system cannot be over-emphasized. If the result of the study properly utilized. It is going to be beneficial to parents, the students, teachers, educators, government, proprietor, counselors etc.

It will help to understand the need for qualitative education, what, when and how to provide supportive measures and motivation that will boost the students moral and morale towards learning and help in building an evil free and economically balanced society/ nation.

The work of this nature when completed may help the parents to be aware of the effect the parent has on children and how such affect the child positively or negatively in relation to their academic performance. From the available recommendations, they will be able to adopt measures of bringing up there in such a way that they will perform well academically. Finally, the research when completed may add to available literature and may encourage further research on the topic.                                                                          

1.7: SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study will analyze the effect of parent’s motivation on the academic performance of Secondary School students in Yaba, LGA, Lagos State.

The study is limited to some selected Secondary Schools in the area but being mindful that the selected schools cut across all categories of schools-private and public.

1.8: DEFINITION OF TERM

The term that require vivid clarification for ease of comprehensive in their contextual use are defined and delimited for this study include:

(a)Parents: A parent is a person who has conceived (biologically mother) or sired (biological father) and whose genes are therefore transmitted to the child. Section 576 of the Educational Act 1996 defines “parent” as;

·         All natural (biological) parent, whether they are married or not.

·         Any person who, although not a natural parent, has parental responsibilities for a child or young person.

·         Any person who, although not a natural parent has care of  a child or young person

(b)Motivation: It refers to internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, roles subjects or to make an effort to achieve a goal.

(c)Parent Motivation: It include all supportive measures put in place by parents in order to stimulate the effectiveness and efficiency of their children.

(d)Socio-economic status: It simply refers to as the status of the parent in the society whether high, moderate or low class.

(e)Academic Performance:  It represents performance outcome that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished scientific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environment specifically in school.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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