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THE EFFECT OF KIDNAPPING ON PUPILS PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH (CASE STUDY OF GLORY LAND GROUP OF SCHOOLS, EDO STATE)

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THE EFFECT OF KIDNAPPING ON PUPILS PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH (CASE STUDY OF  GLORY LAND GROUP OF SCHOOLS, EDO STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Kidnapping can be defined as the taking away or transportation of a person against the person's will, generally with the purpose of holding the person in false incarceration, a confinement without legal authority. This might be done for ransom, in furtherance of another crime, or as part of a child custody issue (Al-Eissa, 1995). A major cause of worry is the recent rash of kidnappings for ransom around the country. From students to travellers, and even inside cities themselves. While the outcome might be unexpected, ranging from the loss of life to the safe return of the abducted victim, it is critical that we obtain an awareness of the psychological trauma experienced by survivors and their friends/families. Kidnapping and abduction occur for a variety of reasons, the most prevalent of which include kidnapping for ransom, selling victims for various trades, political kidnapping, kidnapping by militants for the purpose of recruiting victims, and a variety of other causes.

According to Zannoni (2003), kidnapping is a diverse and evolving issue, but it is most widespread in nations with high levels of crime and corruption, under-resourced or under-trained police, a weak judiciary, and/or a history of political or social instability and war. Nigeria was placed sixth among the top ten Kidnap Rated Countries in the world, trailing Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, and the Philippines in 2004 (Clayton, 2004), but by 2012, she had risen to fourth among the Top Ten Kidnap for Ransom nations in the world (Akhibge & Keleoso, 2013).

Kasozi, (1993) opined that several variables have been linked to abduction among Nigerian youths. Among these are social and moral degradation, peer group influence, drug culture, mass media, ethnic nationalism, ethnic militia, godfatherism and elites, the economy, population, and family influence, among others. Kidnapping is a rising global problem with no viable solution. As a result, it has piqued the interest of researchers from several disciplines of study. Sociologists, social psychologists, clinical psychologists, social workers, philosophers, and economists have begun to investigate not just the causes and repercussions of kidnapping, but also other related concepts. In terms of forensic psychology, there are often a few basic motives for kidnapping. The first and most important is sexual fulfillment (Clutterbuck, 2005). A person will frequently kidnap in order to keep the victim as a sexual slave. Kidnappers may torture and kill their captives in severe situations when they no longer have any use for them. These sorts of cases are extremely upsetting and frequently have a long-term influence on society's mentality. Kidnappers may also perform other acts in exchange for a ransom. Needham, (1977) remarked that abduction is more complex and customized than armed robbery since it has webs from corporate moguls and daring politicians who sponsor these activities for reasons best known to them. He argues that the kidnappers employ modern technology to manipulate their brains, differentiating themselves as Okada operators, phone boot operators, and hawkers.

However, the worst part of kidnapping is its effects on psychological health. People especially young girls and women who have survived kidnapping frequently struggle with trust difficulties for the rest of their lives, since being robbed of their freedom and held against their will may destroy faith in mankind as a whole. Some victims may even develop distrustful of family members, feeling that their relatives did not do enough to bring them home or to keep them from being abducted in the first place. This can set off a vicious cycle of disordered thinking in the victims' lives, causing problems in both personal and professional relationships. Kidnapping is one of the most psychologically traumatic acts that can be committed. Victims generally need years to recuperate from the psychological traumas inflicted on their health, and some never fully recover (Ajani, 2010).

According to the World Health Organization as cited in (Clutterbuck, 2005), Psychological health or widely known as mental health is "a condition of well-being in which the individual recognizes his or her own strengths, can cope with the usual pressures of life, can work successfully and fruitfully, and is able to contribute to his or her community." Kidnap victims live with significant emotional and mental wounds, forcing them to deal with difficulties such as trust, independence, love, sex, respect, and a slew of others. According to psychological reasons for why individuals kidnap others, a person would frequently kidnap in order to hold the victim prisoner as a sexual slave. Kidnappers may torture and kill their captives in severe situations when they no longer have any use for them. These sorts of cases are extremely upsetting and frequently have a long-term influence on victim's mentality. Kidnappers may also perform their acts in exchange for a ransom.

Ellis, (2003) reiterated that victims of kidnap may experience psychological problems in various areas of their lives. One of the most commonly reported psychological effects of abduction is difficulty sleeping, since victims are terrified to fall asleep and let their guard down for fear of being kidnapped again. Sexual deformities are also more frequent in kidnappings involving sexual abuse. Survivors may find it difficult to trust their companions or to be vulnerable. Victims of abduction may require years of counseling to recover from the sexual trauma of abduction and build healthy sexual relationships (Al-Eissa, 1995).

Uzochukwu, (2015) found that the impacts of kidnapping on psychological health are varied and diverse. Some of them are; emotional effects which includes feelings of confusion and disbelief, with with self doubts. Shock, denial, anger, anxiety, feelings of guilt. Others may experience shame, feelings of sadness, hopelessness, social withdrawal from society, feeling betrayed and having difficulty trusting people again. Some victims also experience physical effects and these may include difficulty falling asleep, or having recurrent nightmares, fatigue and tiredness, muscle tension, being on edge and jumping easily at loud or sudden noises, racing heart beats and feeling numb.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Al-Eissa, (1995) observed that although abduction and hostage-taking have a long history, it is only recently that there has been a systematic endeavor to study the long-term and short-term impacts on individuals and their families. This is a critical topic for both clinical and scholarly reasons. Mental health experts' guidance is increasingly requested in relation to the strategic management of hostage events and the clinical care of persons who have been abducted. There is evidence to suggest that determining how to best assist those who have been kidnapped is a sensitive and complex matter, and those who deal with such individuals should be as well informed as possible because such events can have long-term negative consequences, particularly for young children (Uzochukwu, 2015). Kidnapping is one of the most psychologically traumatic acts that can be committed. Victims generally need years to recuperate from the psychological traumas inflicted on them, and some never fully recover. Kidnappings leave victims with significant emotional and mental wounds, forcing them to deal with difficulties such as trust, independence, love, sex, respect, and a slew of others. With the recent increase in the spate of kidnapping especially of young school girls in Nigeria, it is of utmost importance to ask ourselves if we doing the all the neccesary things to combat this monster and how are we dealing with the psychological effects this has on the victims? (Prior, and Glaser, 2006).

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of this study is to examine the effect of kidnapping on pupils psychological health. Other objectives of this study are:

a)        To identify the causes of kidnapping

b)        To identify the factors influencing the rise in the rate of kidnapping

c)        To find the relationship between kidnapping and school pupil

d)       To find the effects of kidnapping on the society

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

a)        What are the causes of kidnapping?

b)        What are the factors influencing the rise in the rate of kidnapping?

c)        What is the relationship between kidnapping and school pupils?

d)       What are the effects of kidnapping on the society?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of immense help to the field of psychology as it will highlight the effects of kidnapping, will also be of great importance to school administrators and caregivers as ways to deal with pupils psychological health especially due to truama. This research will also help concerned institutions to effect changes where necessary and to put laws in place that will help protect pupils and help curtail kidnapping. Finally, this study will serve as an existing material for future reference and further research.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study will focus on the effects of kidnapping on the psychological health of school pupils. It will focus on the causes of kidnapping and also on the resultant effects of kidnapping.

This study will be using Glory Land group of schools in Edo State as a case study.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will be limited to school pupils and no other group of people. This study will be focusing on the effects on psychological health and this study will be limited to Edo State and thus it needs further research to be conducted in other to use in other parts of the country.

Finally, during the course of this research, most victims were not willing to be identified and in some cases, parents and caregivers were not willing to grant us access to their wards.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Effect: a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Kidnapping: the action of abducting someone or holding someone captive

Psychology: the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour in a given context.

Health: the state of being free from illness or injury


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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