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TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND ITS EFFECT ON TEENAGERS' EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

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TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND ITS EFFECT ON TEENAGERS' EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Teen pregnancy is a significant current societal concern that affects the majority of the world's countries. From first world countries such as the United States to third world countries, this issue has been a subject of concern for policymakers, social workers, and other human care providers owing to its detrimental effects on the female child (Grunseit, 2007). Grunseit discovered in 1997 that the United States of America had the highest rate of teenage pregnancy. Additionally, he noted that each year, an increasing number of adolescent females become pregnant, many of them younger than the age of 17. Additionally, Xinhua (1996) stated that roughly 33.4 percent of documented childbirths in Ghana happened to teens aged thirteen (13) to nineteen (19). This study was compiled using data from childbirths recorded in public hospitals. Rural areas, where traditional birth attendants are utilized and no statistical data are kept, face an even worse scenario.

The majority of authors have connected poverty to adolescent pregnancy and eventual parenting. They view poverty as both a cause and result of adolescent pregnancy. For example, Keller, Hilton, & Twumasi-Ankrah (1999) asserted that in rural areas, family financial constraints and societal customs encourage girls to stay out of school and engage in early sexual encounters, which results in early pregnancy, hence perpetuating the cycle of poverty. This is based on the assumption that addressing adolescent pregnancy will have a trickle-down impact on poverty and vice versa. Teen pregnancy is one of society's social problems. Teenage pregnancy does not bode well for the girl child's development. This is due to the girls' age and the lack of constant help to care for the children and themselves when they were supposed to be at school. Teen pregnancy and motherhood, it is believed, are connected with humiliation, embarrassment, school dropout, and, in some cases, the termination of an individual's hopes of pursuing further education. According to Yampolskaya, Brown, & Greenbaum (2002), "about 60% of young women live in poverty at the time of childbirth, and roughly 73% enter welfare within five years following childbirth."

Baldwin (1950) considered the adolescent stage as a time of resurrection of dormant sexual urges throughout the latency phase (Hosie, 2007). He stated that kids are on the cusp of maturity and are confronted with the prospect of choosing a complete way of life in terms of their career, ethics, and so forth. He continued by stating that in order to discover this in the face of several alternative roles, individuals must determine what they want to achieve and if they are capable of doing it; they must also accept responsibility for decisions that will shape or wreck the remainder of their lives. And in order to take this autonomous step, individuals must have a strong feeling of self-worth, individual worth, and self-esteem, and he stated that our culture does not make it simple for our teens to take this step in life.

Watson & Lindgren (1979) defined adolescence as the period or stage of development that occurs between childhood and adulthood. They added that it is also difficult to define the boundaries of a teenager; when does it begin and when does it end. They stated that the characteristics of a teenager begin to manifest themselves around the ages of 10, 11, or 12 with subtle changes. It is most noticeable in behavior and appearance during adolescence, when girls begin their menstrual cycle.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Cunningham & Boult (1996) asserted that teenage pregnancy has a slew of negative social consequences, including school drop-out or interruption, falling victim to criminal activity, abortion, ostracism, child neglect, difficulties with school adjustment for their children, adoption, lack of social security, poverty, repeated pregnancy, and negative effects on domestic life. School drop-out is proposed to be a "uniquely predictive predictor" of adolescent pregnancy, acting as a prelude to, rather than a result of, becoming pregnant (Bonell et al, 2004). School difficulties are explained in three interconnected ways: first, a strong dislike of school that results in truancy, dropping out, or formal exclusion (Hosie, 2007); second, a lack of educational attainment (Hobcraft & Kiernan, 1999); and third, low aspirations and expectations of the education system as being relevant for future employment (Hobcraft & Kiernan, 1999).

Hosie (2007) also discovered that bullying by instructors or other students contributed to their dissatisfaction with school. Students who have bad attendance and detest school before to pregnancy face a negative response from their schools and are less likely to continue in school than those who had high attendance previously (Hosie, 2007). According to Dilworth (2000)'s broad analysis of the evidence, young moms statistically experience poverty, have lower levels of education, and have less job opportunities than non-parenting adolescents. She discovered that the majority of studies on teen pregnancy prevention focused on the negative elements of teen parenthood. Additionally, it is suggested that there is a bidirectional association between adolescent pregnancy and schooling. Pregnant teens are more likely to drop out of school, and pregnant teenagers are more likely to drop out of school.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of this study is to examine teenage pregnancy and its effect on teenagers' educational development. Specifically, but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:

i.          To find the extent of teenage pregnancy occurrence in Nigerian secondary schools.

ii.        To find out whether teenage pregnancy has any effect on the academic achievement of Nigerian students.

iii.      To examine the factors that influences teenage pregnancy in Nigerian secondary schools.

iv.      To determine ways by which teenage prenancy can be addressed.

v.        To examine the factors that influences teenage pregnancy in Nigerian secondary schools.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

These research questions will be answered in this study:

i.          To what extent does teenage pregnancy occur in Nigerian secondary schools?

ii.        Does teenage pregnancy have any effect on the academic achievement of Nigerian students?

iii.      What are the factors that influences teenage pregnancy in Nigerian secondary schools?

iv.      What are the ways by which teenage prenancy can be addressed?

v.        What are the factors that influences teenage pregnancy in Nigerian secondary schools?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Teenage pregnancy has been a big worry not just for Lagos teenage females, but for the entire country. This study may potentially serve as a pioneering initiative to increase awareness of adolescent pregnancy in the Alimosho Local Government Area. The study's findings may assist policymakers, namely educational planners in Lagos State, in developing more relevant instructional programs on teen pregnancy.

The study's findings may also assist to raise awareness of some of the disorders connected with adolescent pregnancy, such as Vesico Virgina Fistular (VVF) and Rector Virgina Fistular (RVF). Additionally, the findings may serve as a foundation for future research on adolescent pregnancy.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study’s main focus is on teenage pregnancy and its effect on teenagers' educational development. Specifically, this study is focused on finding out the extent of teenage pregnancy occurrence in Nigerian secondary schools, finding out whether teenage pregnancy has any effect on the academic achievement of Nigerian students, and examining the factors that influences teenage pregnancy in Nigerian secondary schools. Furthermore, this study is also focused on determining ways by which teenage prenancy can be addressed and examining the factors that influences teenage pregnancy in Nigerian secondary schools.

Students of selected secondary schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State will serve as the enrolled participants for the survey of this study.

1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse's nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

 Tenage Pregnancy: Teenage pregnancy is when a woman under 20 gets pregnant. It usually refers to teens between the ages of 15-19. But it can include girls as young as 10. It's also called teen pregnancy or adolescent pregnancy.


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