IMPACT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON CAREER CHOICE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE
is a place in which children learn to interpret realities (Wary and Passman,
1996) parents serve as significant interpreters to children for information
about the world and children ability (Hall, Kelly, Hansen and Vulwein, 1996) family
influence is an important force in preparing students for their role as
workers. Young people form their attitude about work and career as a result of
interaction with the family. Family background provides the basis on which a
student’s career planning and decision making evolves. However, within each family,
the level of involvement can very positively or negatively.
background factor found to be associated with career choice includes parents
socio-economic status (SES), their level of education and biogenetics factor
such as physical size, gender, ability and temperament, Panic and Jepson
(1992), in a study on adolescent vocational development reported that had the
most effect on education plans and occupational aspiration was education.
Mortime et al (1992) also reported that parents with post secondary education
tend to pass along its importance in their children a finding reported by other
studies. Montgomery (1992) votes that students talented in mathematics viewed
their career choice as reflective on the interest that stem from early family
influence and educational opportunities.
Piddeo (1990) however, points out that the lower level of parents education can
retard adolescents career choice. Being born to parents with limited education
and income reduces the likelihood of going to college or achieving a
professionally and occupational goals and essentially predetermined the child’s
likely career choice. Family income is another aspect of family background that
influences the career choice of a student. Mortimer et al (1992) one reason for
this may be that family with limited economic resources may tend to direct
children first the older children in the family giving less hope and
encouragement to the younger children in the family. It is therefore
understandable that the self efficacy of students with respect to career
opportunities is linked to the economic support they can expect from their
parents. Another family background factor found to be associated with career
choice include the parents spiritual/health parents who love Jesus and want the
best for their children will urge their children to pursue a career that will
bring them joy in the future. Thus proverbs 22:6 admonished parents to pay
attention to their children while the children in turn should prove themselves
obedient (Ephesians 6:13).
1.2 STATEMENT OF
The standard of education in Nigeria today is gradually falling thus leading to
lots of arrangements amongst scholars civil servants, educational planners etc
as to what is the immediate and remote causes of the failure and the factors
hindering high standard of education, while we may blame governments, teachers,
and children, the family which students comes from leave much to be desired. It
is important to note that we cannot exonerate the family that a child came from
when talking about the students choice of career in secondary school. Family
background factors found to have influence the students choice of career is
based on parents socio-economic status, parents educational level, parents love
for Jesus and family size and parents temperament.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of
the study is to examine the impact of family background on occupational choice
of secondary school students. Specific objectives of the study are:
To ascertain the degree in which socio-economic status of parents influence the
career choice of students in secondary school.
examine the relationship between the level of education of parents and the
career choice of students in secondary schools
determine if the size of a family have any influence on the choice of career of
secondary school students.
examine the relationship between living condition at family and choice of
career of students.
find out if the ability and temperament of parents affect the choice of career
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
In order to deal with the influence of family background on the career choice
of secondary school students the following questions were asked:
To what degree does the socio-economic status of parents influence the career
choice of students in secondary school?
Is there any relationship between the level of education of parents and the
career choice of students in secondary schools?
Does the size of a family have any influence on the choice of career of
secondary school students?
Is there any relationship between living condition at family and choice of
career of students?
To what extend does the ability and temperament of parents affect the choice of
career of students?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF
Students succeed in school when certain factors are put in place or put under
control, some of these includes ensuring that the child feeds well at family,
get enough rest, does his family work has his work checked by both his teachers
and parents, has his school materials, gets adequate encouragement from their
parents, useful information should be given the child to guide futures
generation of choice of career. In the light of the above, the students will
assist parents to have insight into the behavior and needs of their children.
The study intends to reveal the factors that impedes or enhance the choice of
students in secondary schools.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE
This study is restricted to secondary schools in Esan Central local government
area of Edo State. In the realization of similar condition facing most students
in other secondary schools in Edo State the survey shall focus on students in
their first year and final year of studies.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
a unit comprising of husband, wife and children.
FAMILY SIZE: The
number of people in the family.
This includes monogamy and may be nuclear or extended family.
HOME ENVIRONMENT: This
refers to parental experience and aspirations for children, objects and
material conditions in the home for comfort and also specific behavioral
processes conducive to learning.
UPBRINGING: This refers to education of
children and how they perform in academics when subjected to test or
This term is used for social processes in which one achieve social competence
and individual growth, carried on in a selected, controlled sitting which can
be institutionalized as a school or college.
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS: Person’s
trade, vocation or principal means of earning living.
STATUS: This refers to position of recognition
which one finds him in the society. Such a position may not be hereditary but
acquired through personal efforts like education, wealth, occupation and social
This refers to the students’ achievement, scores within the class and his
position relative to all those subjected the same test.
result or outcome of anything be it positive or negative.
This refers to prevailing atmosphere in the home whether violent, resentful or
ATTITUDE: Parents disposition to respond in a
characteristics way to some stimulus in their social environment. Some
responses determine the way and manner their children are brought up by
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