GIRLS PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS ACTIVITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This research study is an online effort with global research to explore the extent and influence of general issues and challenges of girls' participation in high school level sporting activities. The research hypothesis has been tested: there is no significant effect of the problems and difficulties encountered in the participation of pupils in sports activities in secondary schools of Ikeja, in Lagos State. The hypothesis has also been tested with regard to the difference between the sexes. The population of this study consisted of all teachers and students from Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 120 students from 10 high schools was selected. The questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. The result shows that the problems and difficulties encountered in the participation of girls in sports activities had a significant effect and a gender difference was also observed.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The role of sport has always been recognized, since there is a variation in the role of sports participation and the achievement of its benefits. The general understanding of the masses about the role of sport has been positive and is considered a friendly commitment to humans in everyday life. According to Cote & Fraser, sport has the potential to achieve three important objectives that are physical health, psychosocial development and learning motor skills. In addition to that Kilpatick et al. Ryska, Koivula, have concluded that sports participation has also been shown to have positive effects on physical health, psychological improvement, stress reactivity and mental well-being of both sexes.
Sports participation has also been positive in promoting the academic and social abilities of students. Khan also supported this concept by concluding that "being athletes, most students have shown good academic results in their credits, particularly at the university level." Research has supported that participation in university sports is not only beneficial for the physical and mental development of the participants, but can also develop the social relationships of young people. This position is supported by Khan S as the authors argued that the "declining position of education can be improved through sport and games." In the light of the above, it can be correctly concluded that students' academic achievements and participation in sports activities are associated with each other.
Resnick et al. have shown that "participation in sports activities is more valuable in the development of physical and mental health, the development of social attributes and the development of skills." In addition, the relief of mental tension, the feeling of well-being, the acquisition of good health, entertainment and weight control are the other common benefits of
The basic problems and challenges for girls' participation in sports activities in Nigeria have been among nations where the population growth rate is quite high. At present, Nigeria is the sixth most populous country in the world with a population of 188 million, of which 51.35% are men and 48.65 are girls. (Survey of active population of Nigeria 2012-13, Ministry of Planning, Development and Reforms, Population projections for the year 2007-2030 and Office of Statistics of Nigeria). It has been a common observation that girls make up almost half of the total population, but despite that reality, our priorities have changed and instead of paying attention By promoting girls, we ignore them and place them at the end of our priority list. Girls have generally been ignored in many professions, including opportunities to participate in sports. In these circumstances, it is necessary to provide equal opportunities for girls in various professions, including participation in sports activities.
There have been a series of studies focused on different limitations (personal, environmental, biological, psychological, environmental hereditary social, access to peer groups, age, perceived barriers) Type of family activity, obesity, lack of time motivation, money and others facilities) in terms of girls' participation in sport. Hoden (2010), Kara and Demirci (2010), Scott and Mowen (2010), Stanis et al. (2010) discovered that lack of time, lack of knowledge, family problems, lack of money and peers are the main recreational limitations for girls' participation in sport.
On most levels, women's sports attract less money than men's sports. Women represent 41% of all athletes funded by various programs. In community sports, girls' teams tend to attract less sponsors from local businesses because they don't have a large fan base. According to Attarzade and Sohrabi, Mozafari et al. Shores et al. He also concluded that fear of aggression, lack of facilities, gender, race and high entrance fees are some of the other factors that affect the participation of different groups of people in sports activities.
The culture of sport itself is a problem. In third world countries, especially in our eastern culture, sports activities have generally been considered predominantly male activities. On the other hand, girls face a series of problems to participate in the sport. Deem, Jackson and Henderson have concluded that being addicted; It has always been difficult for women to have money to spend on recreational activities. On average, girls have less confidence than boys and rate their performance or skills more negatively than boys. Self-confidence is also linked to competition.
The influence of parents, coaches and other adults affects girls and boys differently. Adolescent girls place greater emphasis on self-comparison and adult comments than adolescent girls, who rely more on competitive results to base their personal judgment on physical competence. The purpose of this study is to explore the problem and challenges of girls' participation in sport among students in Nigeria's public schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Different limitations, such as personal, environmental, biological, psychological, social, environmental, peer group access, age, perceived family challenges, obesity, lack of time, motivation, money and other facilities for girls' participation in sport. All these factors have a great influence on the participation of girls and the promotion of sport. Taking into account the past and present state of the sport, the researcher chose the theme "Problems and challenges of girls' participation in high school sports activities in Ikeja, Lagos".
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To investigate the effects of issues and challenges on female student’s participation in sports and other sports activities in secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos state.
To evaluate the current scenario of girl’s participation in sports activities in secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos state.
H01: There is no significant effect of issues and challenges on female student’s participation in sports activities in secondary schools in Ikeja, Lagos state.
H2: There is no significant difference between the views of boys and girls respondents in different issues and challenges in girl’s participation in sport activities in Ikeja, Lagos state.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this particular study can be justified for several reasons. First, let's examine the importance of sport in the daily lives of young people. In today's mechanical era, we assign every task of our daily lives to machines and computers that tend to make man inactive, lazy and incapable. Games and sports are the only effective way of obtaining free time and satisfaction, as well as making good use of the many leisure hours, and free time is a great social problem. Games and sports are the only effective way to frequently provide opportunities to make the most of leisure in terms of participation in different types of sports activities of our choice and interest. Tension and mental problems are very common today. The sport offers sufficient recreational and entertainment opportunities for all members of society without discrimination. Sport has always produced positive results, regardless of nature, timing and type of use, and in case of stress and mental concerns, sport provides participants with a feeling of freshness and entertainment.
The health benefits of women's participation in sport and sport are now well established and recognized throughout the world. Participation in sports and sports activities can prevent a number of no communicable diseases, which account for more than 60% of deaths worldwide, including 66% in developing countries, the World Health Organization. A player never has trouble adapting in a society and is a useful member of society. Games in progress can be seen in space, in the mountains, on the plains and on the surface of the water. It was a universal activity and its importance has always been recognized. This study will focus on general issues related to sport and the challenges facing girls' participation in sports and other sports activities at the high school in Ikeja, Lagos state, Nigeria.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study was conducted in Lagos, as the city has the highest number of high schools with a strong interest in extracurricular activities, including sports, in Nigeria. It is also the most populous city in the world, with almost all public, private and international socio-political and economic sectors.
As the researcher could not include all the people who live and work in Lagos, twelve secondary schools in Ikeja were used in this study.
During the study, the researchers faced a series of challenges, including time. The time allotted to the study was not enough to carry out an intensive and exhaustive study because some of the information was not available quickly and easily. The fund for the personally funded study was not sufficient to cover all expenses, such as transportation, food allowances, recruitment of research assistants and stationery.
During his investigation, the researcher encountered administrative problems. Many of the respondents, particularly those who were supposed to use questionnaires, were unable to complete the questionnaire on time and others deceived them to the point of requiring the researcher to redistribute other copies. In addition, many respondents had the idea of obtaining money from the researcher, especially when they knew he was researching as a prerequisite for graduation. The letter of introduction from the university that the researcher had not convinced.
ORGANIZATION OF THISDISSERTATION
This study consists of five chapters. The first chapter presents the introduction and context of the problem, its statement, the main and specific objectives of the study and the research questions. The other sections presented in this chapter are: scope, meaning, limitation, delimitation and organization of the study. The second chapter deals with the literature related to the study. It covers introduction, definition of terms, theoretical review, empirical review and conceptual framework. Chapter Three includes the research methodology in which the research paradigm, research design, study area, population, sampling and sampling techniques, instrumentation, validity and reliability of the research. The instruments, the administration of the instrument and the data analysis plan have been defined. Chapter Four presents an analysis of the data and a discussion of the results. Chapter five covers the summary, conclusion, recommendations and other areas of study.