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FACTORS PREVENTING NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS FROM INTEGRATING ICT INTO TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The use of Information communication technology for classroom instruction is not new in the world. Information Communication Technology tools were first placed in schools in the early 1980s in the United States and will continued to be an important part of education for generations to come (Bransford & Brown, 2000). Globally, the number of computers in secondary education has greatly increased in the last ten years. In United States, the computer to student ratio increased from 1:9 in 1996 to 1:4 in 2001. According to Market data Retrieval (2001), access to internet improved from 70% in 1997 to 92% in 2001. In New Zealand, the computer to student ratio is 1:6 in secondary schools (Lari, Pratt & Trewern, 2002) while 98% of all schools have internet connections (Mallard, 2003). Information Communication Technology is therefore prominent as education instruction tool in the world. High rates of achievement in education are critical for transfer of technology and adoption of relevant changes in our society. Education attainment is one of the opportunity factors that will promote economic growth and reinforce equal pattern of globalization (United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], 2011). Achievements in education can be enhanced by providing opportunities for students to learn, operate and be exposed in the modern technology age. Information Communication Technology in education has made significant progress in china for the last two decades in higher education process (Finger, et al 2007). It is highly applied for distance education based on executing agencies, target students and goals to be achieved. The use of ICT in general has become more common during the last two decades with the existence of the internet and world wide web , the internet becoming the largest collection of information in the world (Parchler, 1999). Information Communication Technology has also changed quality of education in the world and it is clear that students are changing by using ICT tools (Finger, et al 2007). Developments in ICT have affected all sectors of the society including the education sector and its curricula. The integration of ICT into education can improve students’ learning by changing the way teachers teach and the structure of their pedagogies (Shear & Knobrel, 2003). It empowers secondary school students to develop new ways of thinking, being and acting in the world and begin learning (Khine & Fisher, 2003). In using ICTs, students can plan and build models and use internet to bring a new dimension to their learning. In Australia, a survey of computer skills and knowledge of 6213 students tested four domains of activity to ICT adoption (Thomas & Wise, 1999). These activities are creativity (50%), information (70%), communication and educational programs (43%) and games (43%). ICT has also been in the use where instead of using ICT in education, educational technology is used. Technological education is used to support learning, delivery, development, and effective use of computers as an aid to problem solving, classroom management and leadership (Watson et-al, 2003). Hence, ICT in teaching and learning can influence changes in what and how the learners learn and reform the organization and structure of schooling itself. In Africa, ICT is influencing every aspect of human life. It is playing a salient role in work places, business, education and entertainment. Information Communication Technology in Africa has the potential of increasing access and improving relevance and quality of education. It has facilitated the acquisition and absorption of knowledge and enhanced educational systems (Fisseha, 2011).

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are electronic technologies used for information storage and retrieval. Information and communication Technology (ICT) is seen as an important tool that will support and enhance education in recent time. Dawes (2001) is of the view that new technologies have the potentials to support education across the curriculum and provide opportunities for effective communication between teachers and students in ways that have not been possible before. The field of education has been affected by ICT’s, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning and research (Yusuf 2003). ICTS have the potentials to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, as well as strengthen teaching and help schools change (Davis and Tearle 2009). Yelland (2001) argued that, traditional educational environments do not seem to be suitable for preparing learners to function and be productive in the workplaces of today’s society. This implies that, organization that do not incorporate the use of new technologies in schools cannot seriously claim to prepare their students for life in the twenty-first century. Grimus (2000) pointed out that by teaching ICT skills in primary schools the pupils are prepared to face future developments based on proper understanding. What is now known about learning provides important guidelines for uses of technology that can help students and teachers develop the competences needed for the twenty-first century (Bransford, Brown and Cocking 2001).

Preparing learners to function and be productive in the workplaces of today’s society. This implies that, organization that do not incorporate the use of new technologies in schools cannot seriously claim to prepare their students for life in the twenty-first century. Grimus (2000) pointed out that by teaching ICT skills in primary schools the pupils are prepared to face future developments based on proper understanding. What is now known about learning provides important guidelines for uses of technology that can help students and teachers develop the competences needed for the twenty-first century (Bransford, Brown and Cocking 2001).

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Using Information Communication Technology, teachers can enhance students learning in every subject by engaging their thinking, decision-making, problem solving and reasoning behaviors (Grabe, 2001). Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education connect student and teachers to a vast array of global stock of knowledge providing quality education, alternative sources livelihood, and ultimately, a better way of life. It is the policy of government of Nigeria to make ICT part of teaching and learning (NI3C, 2010 – MOE). A national ICT policy was promulgated in 2006 in order to improve the livelihoods of Nigeria by ensuring availability, accessibility, efficient, reliable and affordable ICT service in order to integrate ICT in teaching and learning in secondary schools. There are not many schools in Ogun state with computers and hence there is no standard of what constitutes effective teaching and learning on computers. Although most secondary schools in Nigeria have ICT facilities, the extent to which they are used for effective instructional purposes has not been empirically established, however an explicit research on the factors that enhance ICT integration in teaching and learning in public secondary schools has not been done. There is need to study on the levels of ICT integration in order to identify the factors affecting this process. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the factors affecting ICT integration in teaching and learning in secondary schools in Ogun state.

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that prevents secondary schools in Nigeria from integrating ICT into their teaching and learning process, specifically the study intends to:

1.     To investigate how access to ICT tools affects ICT integration in teaching and learning in secondary schools.

2.     To find out the effect students exposure to technology on the integration of ICT in secondary schools teaching and learning process

3.     To determine how the teacher ICT skills affect integration of ICT in teaching and learning in secondary schools

4.     To find out the effect of not integrating ICT into teaching and learning process on the academic performance of students and teaching performance of teacher

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions was formulated to guide the research

1.     How does access to ICT gadgets affects ICT integration into teaching and learning in secondary school

2.     What is the effect of students exposure to technology on the integration of ICT in secondary schools teaching and learning process

3.     how does the teacher ICT skills affect integration of ICT in teaching and learning in secondary schools

4.     what is the effect of not integrating ICT into teaching and learning process on the academic performance of students and teaching performance of teacher

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