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EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF INCESSANT FUEL SCARCITY ON THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION IN GOMBE STATE (WITH FOCUS ON THE ONE YEAR OF PRESIDENT BOLA AHMED TINUBU ADMINISTRATION)

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EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF INCESSANT FUEL SCARCITY ON THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION IN GOMBE STATE (WITH FOCUS ON THE ONE YEAR OF PRESIDENT BOLA AHMED TINUBU ADMINISTRATION)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The significance of education in the advancement of any nation cannot be overstated. There is a growing conviction in the capacity of education to revolutionize society. Education in Nigeria is regarded as a means of achieving excellence in national development (Pat et al., 2021). Education is essential for the societal, economic, political, and technological metamorphosis of the nation. Education has the potential to revolutionize a country's economy, taking it from its current state to its desired state. In 2023, Aregbesola stated that it is a crucial tool for the advancement of society, politics, and the economy. In order to meet the needs of students, teachers, and society as a whole, education must adapt to the changing societies and technologies. 

Education encompasses more than just academic excellence; it also encompasses personal growth and the development of one's character. Hence, in order for education to effectively fulfil its pivotal role in a nation's progress, it must be meticulously organised, with careful consideration given to the fundamental requirements and ambitions of the population (Jason et al., 2018). Contemporary lists prioritise the minimal requirement for fulfilling "essential necessities," which include not just food, water, clothing, and shelter, but also sanitation, education, healthcare, and transportation. The government frequently makes decisions that have an impact on education, particularly in areas such as curriculum, funding, standards, and priorities. An example of a move made under President Bola Ahmed Tinubu's administration was the elimination of subsidies on petroleum products. This action has resulted in a substantial increase in fuel costs, leading to a widespread shortage of fuel across the country.

Scarcity, as defined by Julius (2019), refers to the disparity between the availability of resources and the boundless desires of customers. Fuel scarcity refers to a situation when the demand and use of fuel exceed the available supply or potential quantity of resources (Adaugo, 2018). The new administration, under the leadership of Chief Bola Ahmed Tinubu, has promised to completely liberalise the downstream oil sector or eliminate all petrol subsidies in the country. Within a span of 30 minutes after the president's speech, not only do fuel prices see an automatic increase, but the costs of transportation, food, and manufacturing also climb. The elimination of fuel subsidies has resulted in fuel scarcity, adversely affecting small firms, employees, and students in multiple ways. 

The repercussions have been experienced in several sectors of the economy, irrespective of geographical location, and will be contingent upon individuals' capacity to adjust to the evolving economic environment. The shortage of petrol in Nigeria signifies a substantial change in the country's economic strategy. The ramifications of fuel scarcity on inflation, transportation expenses, and individuals' livelihoods are significant and should not be disregarded (Ogunode & Ukozor 2022; Ogunode, Ahmed & Olugbenga, 2023; Ukozor & Ogunode 2023). Both governmental and private entities have been impacted by the scarcity. Financial institutions, healthcare institutions, religious institutions, political institutions, the tourism sector, the judiciary, and educational institutions have all been impacted. Fuel scarcity has numerous effects on schooling. Some of the consequences include: an increase in the administrative expenses of operating schools, a decrease in teaching and learning hours, and a drop in school monitoring activities (Akinyemi, 2023). This study aims to investigate the impact of persistent fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

This study aims to establish a fundamental knowledge of the impact of fuel scarcity during President Tinubu's administration on education and educational administration in Nigeria. Omonete, Victor & Marcus (2023) argue that Nigeria can be conceptualised as a complex system comprising several subsystems or components, such as education, health, politics, religion, energy, and traditional institutions. These subsystems collectively work towards achieving the country's national aims and objectives. Omonete et al., (2023) asserts that these sub-systems are interconnected and interdependent in order to achieve the country's national objectives. The integrity and coherence of each individual system are crucial to the overall functioning of the entire system. The malfunction of any system will impact the operation of the other system. Consequently, the gasoline shortage resulting from President Tinubu's current administration and the energy sector will impact all other subsystems. 

The shortage of fuel has resulted in an increase in the pricing of products and services, which has had a detrimental effect on every institution in the country. The sudden surge in fuel prices, caused by the elimination of subsidies, has exacerbated the economic difficulties experienced by the already vulnerable Nigerian population, who are already coping with high levels of unemployment and widespread economic woes. (Valentine & Monday, 2023) 

The fuel scarcity has had an impact on the implementation of teaching programmes in Nigerian educational institutions. The teaching programme is a crucial programme inside educational institutions (Ogunode, 2021). Teaching course involves the process of transmitting knowledge to the learners. Teaching entails the act of imparting a lesson or instruction, either in person or through virtual means, with the intention of bringing about a change in behaviour. The predominant teaching approach in Nigerian educational institutions is mostly based on the traditional concept of in-person or physical instruction. The physical teaching technique is a pedagogical approach where teachers physically conduct lessons or lectures inside the school setting (Anderson et al., 2021). The physical teaching technique involves the relocation of teachers from their homes to the classroom environment. It entails the utilisation of school buses, automobiles, or motorcycles to commute from the residences of the instructors to the school premises (Aniefiok, 2022). The current administration's fuel scarcity has resulted in an increase in fuel prices. The rise in gasoline prices has resulted in an increase in transport fares, which has had a direct and indirect impact on the ability of teachers to commute to schools. A significant number of professors are currently unable to attend lessons, while in tertiary institutions, many lecturers have opted to condense their lectures to once or twice a week. Certain educators may be required to allocate over 50% of their incomes just towards transit, leaving minimal funds for other necessities such as sustenance, housing, and medical care. Therefore, the necessity for doing this investigation arises. 

1.3 Objectives of the study

The primary objective of this study is to critically examine the effect of incessant fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state. Specific objectives of this study are to:

Assess the extent of the fuel scarcity in on the quality of education in Gombe state

Find out the causes of the incessant fuel scarcity in Gombe state

Examine the effects of the continuous fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state

Proffer solutions in tackling the incessant fuel scarcity in Gombe state

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered in this study:

What is the extent of the fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state?

What are the causes the causes of the incessant fuel scarcity in Gombe state?

What are the effects of the continuous fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state?

What are the strategies to be employed in tackling the incessant fuel scarcity in Gombe state?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypothesis will be validated in this study.:

Ho1: The extent of the fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state is low.

Ha: The extent of the fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state is high.

1.6 Scope of the study

Broadly, this study focuses to critically examine the effect of incessant fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe. Specifically, this study focuses on assessing the extent of the fuel scarcity in on the quality of education in Gombe state, and find out the causes of the incessant fuel scarcity in Gombe state. Further, this study will examine the examine the effects of the continuous fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state, and proffer solutions in tackling the incessant fuel scarcity in Gombe state.

This study will be carried out in Gombe state.

1.7 Significance of the study

This study will serve as a baseline for researchers and students and also guide government, policy makers and Educationist. 

This study will also be of great importance to the youths, government and the nation as a whole as it will discuss the relevance of fuel and its impact to qualitative education.

Finally, this study will also serve as a reference material to students and researchers for further studies and future research.

1.7 Limitations of the study

As is customary in all human undertakings, the researchers encountered modest constraints during the investigation. A major limitation of the study is the researcher's financial constraint, as they are a full-time student without any means of income to sustain themselves.

Another limitation was the lack of extensive literature on the subject, as there is limited data available on examination of the effect of incessant fuel scarcity on the quality of education in Gombe state. Consequently, a significant amount of time and effort was necessary to locate the appropriate resources, books, or information, as well as to gather data. Also, this study is constrained by its small sample size and narrow geographic scope, as it just focuses on Gombe state. Consequently, the results of this study are not applicable for generalization, thereby leaving room for other research.

Furthermore, the researcher faced a time constraint due to the need to do this research while also fulfilling obligations such as attending lectures and other educational activities.

1.9 Definition of terms

Incessant: (of something regarded as unpleasant) continuing without pause or interruption.

Fuel scarcity: Fuel scarcity implies that the demand and use of fuel are high than the actual supply or potential quantity of resources.

Education: The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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