EFFECTS OF ICT ON STUDENTS' VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Background of the Study
Learning vocabulary is the most important part of learning a language. Wilkins as an early representative advocate of the communicative approach believes that learning vocabulary is as important as learning grammar (as cited in Shen, 2003), and further he adds that "without grammar little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." (UKessay,2015). Furthermore, according to Alqahtani (2015), a lot of students view second language acquisition (SLA) as primarily a vocabulary-learning process. As a result, they devote a significant amount of time to learning word lists by heart and subsequently depend on their bilingual dictionary as a vital communication tool.
Additionally, in conceptual sense, vocabulary is regarded as a basic for the development of the other skills: listening, writing, reading, speaking, pronunciation and spelling. In the same manner, it has gotten its central role in learning a language. Besides, the fact that the 21st-century information and communication technology (ICT) brought numerous benefits to different aspects of living especially in teaching and learning. It is also fertile of experienced science which differentiates modern lives. Conceptually, the ICT is defined any communication device or application that encompassing radio, television, telephones, computers, network, hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as video conferencing and distance learning” (Khan et al., 2015). Moreover, English language is considered to have the largest vocabulary in the world (Crystal, 2002) and learning vocabulary is an essential part of mastering a second language (Schmitt, 2008). Apart from the importance of vocabulary learning, new technologies challenge traditional conceptions of both teaching and learning and information and communication technologies (ICT) provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated, teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused and interactive knowledge environments (The UNESCO World Education, 2005).
Furthermore, most computer assisted language learning (CALL) programs place a considerable emphasis on vocabulary learning implicitly or explicitly. Also, some efforts made to aim for a clear conceptualization of computer assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL) so that it can be developed into a distinctive sub-domain of CALL. However, Kopinska (2013) believes that technologies are rapidly gaining the attention and interest of teachers and learners in EFL classrooms worldwide. Houcine also includes that the use of ICT increases students’ motivation, enhances personal commitment and engagement, Learners’ collaboration and communication like web 2.0 tools (Isasag, 2012). Today, according to Wang & Vasquez (2020) Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 technologies have become a ubiquitous component of our daily lives which is used by millions of people to communicate, collaborate, network and entertain through blogs, wikis, social media, YouTube, and games. Also, it is claimed that Web 2.0 tools in many L2 learning contexts have “transformed pedagogy curriculum design, the conception of language learning. Moreover, schools throughout the western world have invested a lot in their infrastructure over the past 20 years (Pelgrum & Anderson as cited in Volman, M. 2005). By introducing the use of computers in schools, ICT is now accepted as an efficient means of acquiring knowledge (Volman, 2005). This was proved by several studies that students who are using ICT gain higher score than students who do not.Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to investigate the effects of ICT on students' vocabulary development in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigeria is a positive development, and using the internet for educational purposes has numerous advantages, particularly in terms of staying current and relevant. However, the major problem is that students may become overly dependent on spell checkers and autocorrect features, leading to a decline in their spelling skills. This reliance on technology may hinder the natural development of a strong vocabulary.
Additionally, with the prevalence of text messaging and social media, students might develop habits of using abbreviations and informal language. This can negatively impact their formal vocabulary and writing skills. Similarly, the abundance of information available on the internet can overwhelm students, making it difficult for them to focus on building a specific vocabulary. Constant exposure to distractions online may also hinder effective vocabulary acquisition. It is in the light of these that the study seeks to investigate the effects of ICT on students' vocabulary development in secondary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of ICT on students' vocabulary development in secondary schools. Specifically, the study will;
Identify ICTs tools used by students to support and develop their vocabulary.
2.Determine whether there is a significant relationship between ICT usage and students’ vocabulary development in secondary schools.
3.Investigate the impact of ICT on students’ vocabulary development in secondary schools.
4.Ascertain the factors affecting the use of ICT for vocabulary development among students in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been prepared for the study:
What are ICTs tools used by students to support and develop their vocabulary?
Is there a significant relationship between ICT usage and students’ vocabulary development in secondary schools?
Does ICT usage have impact on on students’ vocabulary development in secondary schools?
What are the factors affecting the use of ICT for vocabulary development among students in secondary schools?
1.5 Significant of the Study
The effects of ICT on students' vocabulary development in secondary schools will be revealed to the government at various levels, stakeholders involved in education policies, teachers, school management, media houses and students in this study. It will additionally enlighten students on the impact and use of ICT, and also provide a basis for the inclusion of new knowledge.
Furthermore, this research will be useful to media house for proper dissemination of information to a large population and will also reveal the extent to which the information and communication technology (ICT) will inculcate the required, skills, attitude towards the acquisition of foreign language. It will also assist the University authority especially the library and computer department to look into service matters pertaining to accommodating the use of ICT for improve vocabulary by students.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the effects of ICT on students' vocabulary development in secondary schools.
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of this study is boarded on the effects of ICT on students' vocabulary development in secondary schools. Theoretically, this study will identify ICTs tools used by students to support and develop their vocabulary, determine whether there is a significant relationship between ICT usage and students’ vocabulary development in secondary schools and investigate the impact of ICT and ascertain the factors affecting the use of ICT for vocabulary development among students in secondary schools. Geographically, the study will be delimited to secondary students in Lagos State.
1.7 Limitation of the study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.
More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.
1.8 Definition of Terms
ICT: is an acronym for “information communications technology”. It refers to the combination of manufacturing and services industries that capture, transmit and display data and information electronically.
Vocabulary: an action such as reading,taking notes, holding study groups which the students perform regularly and habitually in order to accomplish the task of learning
Learning: the acquisition of knowledge or skills through study, experience, or being taught.