EFFECT OF HOUSING
CONDITIONS ON STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
It is widely believed that students can acquire better
academic benefits from living in a decent housing unit within or around the
campus. So much so, that many colleges and universities, ranging from small
liberal arts colleges to large state universities, require students to live on
campus during their first year with few exceptions coupled with the failure of
the appropriate authorities in the provision of decent housing for students.
Typically, students exempt from such a policy include students over the age of 25,
students that are married and/or have children, and students in the military as
they can afford to provide for themselves a better housing unit outside the
campus at a comparatively expensive amount (Loring, 1996). It has been suggested
that availability of decent housing structure causes students to be less likely
to drop out or transfer, more likely to make academic progress, and more
capable of achieving a high level of academic performance.
Despite these common perceptions, there are inherent
difficulties in estimating the impact decent housing unit has on student
performance. For the schools that require the year one students to live on
campus, there is no effective control group. Typically, year one students that do
not live on campus share other features with each other that set them apart. A house even for students is a place
where one lives. It is a place of residence or refuge. A house is not a mere
transient shelter. Its essence lies in the people who live in it (English,
Bad housing covers a wide range of issues, including
overcrowding, insecurity, housing that is in poor physical condition, and living
in deprived neighborhoods. The range of health
problems which can be attributed to poor housing conditions is large, from
psychological and physiological effects to specific diseases varying in the
degree of associated morbidity (Chapin, 2001). There is a large and significant
body of scientific literature that demonstrates convincingly that there are
direct causal links between different aspects of poor housing and particular
health conditions (Smith, 1990). Health problems that have been associated with
poor housing include the infectious diseases, non-infectious respiratory
diseases such as asthma, and social and psychological problems.
The literature has identified three
primary components of poor housing that are directly linked to poor health
outcomes: overcrowding, dampness and moulds, and sanitation and basic housing
quality. The researcher will explore t these components and its relationship with students academic
performance coupled with the health consequences. Crowding is generally
considered as more of a threat to mental than physical health, although the
spread of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and scabies is also associated
with overcrowding. Most studies investigating crowding adopt a standard measure
based on WHO guidelines of either persons/room or sq. ft / person. However, a
caution is in order since cultures vary in terms of their tolerance for crowded
living conditions. Mitchell (1976) proposed that crowding is a more complex
variable that requires a distinction between density– the number of people per
unit space, and congestion, which reflects the simultaneous demands for the use
of available space. The adverse mental health effect of crowding stems from the
lack of personal control over the available space, rather than the actual small
size of the space. Cultural variations in definitions of “crowding” also play a
mediating role. Crowding which has been part of students housing system in
Nigeria calls for concern making it necessary to carry out research on the
effect of housing condition on student’s academic performance.
OF THE PROBLEM
This study is designed to examine the
relationship between housing conditions and academic performance of students.
The level of research in this area is fraught with difficulty around proving
causation: for example, whether poor housing conditions cause certain people to
fail in achieving their educational potential, or whether the two are
'associated' – that those who are likely to fail at school tend to be
concentrated in poorer condition houses or neighbourhoods anyway. In some areas
(such as mental ill-health) there are schools of thought that those less able
to cope will 'drift' into poorer areas and housing conditions. Although there
may be more mileage in academic circles around the cause and effect arguments,
the evidence for the positive impact of better housing is overwhelming. However, the researcher is analyzing the
effect of housing conditions o students academic performance.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
following are the objectives of this study:
effect of housing conditions on students academic performance.
2. To examine the condition of the housing
units available to Nigerian students.
3. To determine the factors affecting academic
performance of students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
is the effect of
housing conditions on student’s academic performance?
2. What is the condition of the housing units available
to Nigerian students?
3. What are the factors affecting academic
performance of students?
There is no significance relationship between housing conditions and student’s academic
There is significance relationship between housing conditions and student’s academic
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
following are the significance of this study:
outcome of this study will be useful to the general public and the government
authorities saddled with the responsibility of providing decent housing for
students in terms of assessment of the current situation with consideration for
its effect on academic performance.
2. This research will also serve as a resource
base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further
research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide
new explanation to the topic
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
study on the effect
of housing conditions on student’s academic performance will cover the present
state of housing used by students in Nigeria and its effect on their academic
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the
efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature
or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire
Time constraint- The researcher will
simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently
will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
F.S. (2001). Some Housing Factors Related to Mental Hygiene. American Journal
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(1987). Housing and Health: The Relationship Between Housing Conditions and the
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W.C. (1996). Residential Environment: Nexus of Personal Interactions and Healthful
Development. Journal of Health and Human Behaviour, 5, 166-169.
R.E. (1976). Cultural and Health Influences on Building, Houing, and Community
Standards: Cost Implications for the Human Habitat. Human Ecology, 4,
(1990). Health Status and the Housing System. Social Science and Medicine,
This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research