ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF POST COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Universities and college campuses are places where students live and study in close proximity to each other. They are also buzzing cultural hubs where students are brought together from faculties around the school. Recently, the foundations of this unique ecosystem have been impacted significantly by the rapid spread of the coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak, creating uncertainty regarding the implications for higher education. Over the past 52 week, education officials have been forced to cancel lectures.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). These viruses were originally transmitted from animals to people. SARS, for instance, it was transmitted from civet cats to humans while MERS moved to humans from a type of camel. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. The name coronavirus comes from the Latin word corona, meaning crown or halo. Under an electron microscope, it looks like it is surrounded by a solar corona. The novel coronavirus, identified by Chinese authorities on January 7 and since named SARS-CoV-2. it is a new strain that had not been previously identified in humans. Little is known about it, although human-to-human transmission has been confirmed.
Countries around the world are scrambling to halt the spread of the coronavirus pandemic. This outbreak of COVID-19 is a global health emergency, the WHO said on January 30, raising the alarm further on March 11 when it declared the crisis of the pandemic.
On 27 February 2020, Nigeria confirmed its first case in Lagos State, an Italian citizen who works in Nigeria had returned on 25 February from Milan, Italy through the Murtala Muhammed International Airport, fell ill on 26 February and was transferred to Lagos State Biosecurity Facilities for isolation and testing. In order to contain the spread of the virus in Nigeria, the Federal Ministry of Education has directed all educational institutions in Nigeria to shut down and allow students to go home as cases of reported COVID-19 increases as a strategy to contain the spread of the virus.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) tracked the impact of the pandemic on education. As of March 30, they estimate that 87 percent of the world’s students? that is 1.5 billion learners have been affected by school closures. The bulk of these students are enrolled in primary and secondary schools, but there are also millions of students affected at the pre-primary and tertiary education levels. More than 180 countries have shut school doors nationwide, while others have implemented localized school closures. Specifically, in Nigeria the following have been identified as the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on higher institutions: reduction of international education, disruption of academic calendar of higher institutions, cancellation of local and international conferences, teaching and learning gap, loss of workforce in the educational institutions, and cut in budget of higher education.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The outbreak of covid-19 has resulted to many effect on the educational system/plans of Nigeria Tertiary Institutions. Students studying in all over the globe traveled back to their countries due to the covid-19 pandemic. This pandemic affected countries negatively in different ways because students studying abroad were discouraged to continue their studies and many planning to study abroad could not achieve their plans because countries placed a ban on inter-country travel.
The Academic calendar of higher institutions in Nigeria were disrupted due to covid-19. Ogunode (2020) observed that the closure of all educational institutions from primary schools to the higher institutions would affect the students’ academic plans and programme.
Many conferences on different programme that are planned for the first and second quarter of 2020 was canceled due to the pandemic. New discovery and new findings in the educational sectors for this period were reduced because many higher institutions in Nigeria have not fully integrate ICT into teaching and learning programme across the country. According to Wikipedia (2020) the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic has affected educational systems worldwide, leading to the widespread closures of schools and universities. As at 3 April 2020, over 421 million learners were out of school due to school closures in response to covid-19. According to UNESCO monitoring, over 200 countries implemented nationwide closures, impacting about 98% of the world's student population on 23 March 2020.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to assess the effect of post COVID 19 on tertiary institutions. Other objectives are as follows;
To identify the gaps and lapses in tertiary institution academic plans and calendar as a result of the covid-19 outbreak.
To examine the effort of Government towards the reopening of Tertiary Institutions.
To examine the extent to which the shutdown of tertiary institutions has affected both students and lecturers and make applicable recommendations
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the effect of COVID-19 on Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria?
What are the gaps and aspects affected since the shutdown of tertiary institutions?
How has COVID-19 affected the programmes and calendar of Tertiary Institutions?
How do you rate the effort of Government towards the reopening of Tertiary Institutions?
To what extent has the shutdown of tertiary institutions affected both students and lecturers?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There is no doubt that a study of this nature will yield positive and significant contribution.
This study will be of great relevance to students, lecturers and professors of High Institutions as it makes available the damages done by the widespread of Covid-19, its effect on Tertiary Institutions and adequate solutions.
This study will also serve as a source material to anyone conducting a research related to this topic of study.
1.6 SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study would have been very wide if it was carried out in al Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. The study is delimited, based on the fact that there are not time and material resources to see to the whole Nation. This is delimited to Lagos State University only and the findings may not reflect the situation in the whole country.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
TERTIARY INSTITUTION: this is also known as higher institution. Its refers to all post-secondary institutions including both public and private universities, colleges, technical training institute, and vocational schools.
INSTITUTION: this an organization, establishment, foundation, society, or the like, devoted to the promotion of particular cause or program, especially one of a public, educational or charitable character.
WHO: The world health Organization – this body is a specialized agency of United Nations responsible for international public health.
SARS – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: this was a contagious and potentially fatal respiratory illness. An outbreak occurred from 2002 – 2003.
MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome is a viral respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, or MERS‐CoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012.
COVID 19: of the genus Beta coronavirus), is transmitted chiefly by contact with infectious material (such as respiratory droplets) or with objects or surfaces contaminated by the causative virus, and is characterized especially by fever, cough, and shortness of breath and may progress to pneumonia and respiratory failure
UNESCO: an agency of the United Nations established in 1945 to promote the exchange of information, ideas, and culture. In 1984 the US withdrew from the organization, but in 2003, after satisfied with certain reforms, it rejoined.
INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: These are those students who chose to undertake all or part of their tertiary education in a country other than their own and move to that country for the purpose of studying.